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Dietary Phytoecdysteroids

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Handbook of Dietary Phytochemicals

Abstract

Phytoecdysteroids are polyhydroxylated steroids which are widely distributed in the plant world and are present in significant amounts in 5–6% of plant species. Their major role in the plant is probably to deter invertebrate predators, but ecdysteroids also have many beneficial effects in mammals and are attracting attention as therapeutic and nutraceutical agents. Four hundred analogues have been identified so far from plant sources, but 20-hydroxyecdysone is the most frequently encountered and is often the major analogue present. Here we consider the occurrence of phytoecdysteroids in food plants and the human diet and how this might change in the future against the backdrop of what we currently know about biosynthesis of these compounds in plants and their bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activities in mammals. Finally, we discuss the medical and pharmaceutical potential of these molecules, particularly in the area of muscle wasting diseases and diabetes, and indicate which areas of fundamental research require focused study.

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Abbreviations

20E:

20-hydroxyecdysone

2d20E:

2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone

4E-BP1:

4E-binding protein 1

ADMET:

adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicology

AjuC:

ajugasterone C

CNS:

central nervous system

Cyast:

cyasterone

DHT:

dihydrotestosterone

DMD:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

E:

ecdysone

E2:

estradiol

HPLC:

high-performance liquid chromatography

i.p.:

intraperitoneal

IGF-1:

insulin-like growth factor 1

Ino:

inokosterone

IntA:

integristerone A

LC:

liquid chromatography

LD50:

dose bringing about 50% mortality

MakA:

makisterone A

MS:

mass spectrometry

mTORC1:

mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin complex 1

NMR:

nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

PI3K:

phosphoinositide kinase-3

PoA:

ponasterone A

PolB:

polypodine B

Pter:

pterosterone

RIA:

radioimmunoassay

Rub:

rubrosterone

SAR:

structure-activity relationship

TLC:

thin-layer chromatography

Turk:

turkesterone

UV:

ultraviolet

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Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Biophytis for supporting the preparation of this chapter; we thank Christine Balducci and Louis Guibout for carrying out the HPLC-MS/MS of food plant samples and Stanislas Veillet and Pierre Dilda for their comments on the manuscript.

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Dinan, L., Mamadalieva, N.Z., Lafont, R. (2021). Dietary Phytoecdysteroids. In: Xiao, J., Sarker, S.D., Asakawa, Y. (eds) Handbook of Dietary Phytochemicals. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4148-3_35

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