Encyclopedia of Educational Innovation

Living Edition
| Editors: Michael A. Peters, Richard Heraud

Communication Strategies in English as a Lingua Franca Interaction

  • Jagdish KaurEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2262-4_86-1

Framing the Issue

The beginnings of research interest in communication strategies (CSs) can be traced back to the 1970s within the field of applied linguistics. Researchers investigating second language acquisition (SLA) among learners of English sought to identify and categorize the CSs used by learners to address and overcome communication problems faced as a result of gaps in their linguistic knowledge and competence. Specifically, CSs referred to a range of verbal and nonverbal devices deployed by the speaker to deal with encoding difficulties and communication breakdowns (Dörnyei 1995). These include strategies such as circumlocution, approximation, word coinage, literal translation, code switching, gesture, and others. Researchers were divided in their approach to the study of CSs, adopting either a psycholinguistic perspective or an interactional one. The former focuses on the cognitive processes or mental plans of the speaker as s/he attempts to resolve language production...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Björkman, B. (2014). An analysis of polyadic English as a lingua franca (ELF) speech: A communicative strategies framework. Journal of Pragmatics, 66, 122–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dörnyei, Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 55–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Vettorel, P. (2018). ELF and communication strategies: Are they taken into account in ELT materials? RELC Journal, 49(1), 58–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Wagner, J., & Firth, A. (1997). Communication strategies at work. In G. Kasper & E. Kellerman (Eds.), Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives (pp. 323–344). London: Longman.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Okim Kang
  • Alyssa Kermad
    • 1
  1. 1.Languages, Literatures, and CulturesAppalachian State UniversityBooneUSA