Encyclopedia of Teacher Education

Living Edition
| Editors: Michael A. Peters

Bicultural Early Childhood Curriculum

  • Chris JenkinEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1179-6_91-1


With internationalization and globalization, educational services – early childhood through to secondary schools – reflect increasingly multicultural and multilingual communities. Alongside these international changes, since the 1970s, there has been a resurgence in Indigenous peoples claiming recognition of their language and culture. This has been particularly the case in early childhood settings which have been incorporating Indigenous language and culture into their curriculum. For example, the Indigenous Welsh language is encouraged in early childhood services but on a voluntary basis. In Australia, there have been moves to ensure that education programs support all students to understand and acknowledge the Indigenous cultures. In counties such as Canada, Belgium, and Finland, there are bicultural and bilingual curricula.

However, the focus here is on the one country with a compulsory bicultural curriculum foregrounding its Indigenous people’s language and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Jenkin, C. (2016). Investigation of teacher education delivery of bicultural education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(6), 180–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ministry of Education. (1996, 2017). Te Whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuno o Aotearoa: Early childhood curriculum. Wellington: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  3. Orange, C. (2013). The story of a treaty (2nd ed.). Wellington: Bridget Williams Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ritchie, J., & Rau, C. (2008). Whakawhanaungatanga – partnerships in bicultural development in early childhood care and education. Report of a Teaching and Learning Research Initiative Project. http://www.tlri.org.nz/tlri-research/research-completed/ece-sector/whakawhanaungatanga%E2%80%94-partnerships-bicultural-development
  5. Simon, J. (1994). Historical perspectives on schooling. In E. Coxon, K. Jenkins, J. Marshall, & J. Massey (Eds.), The politics of learning and teaching in Aotearoa-New Zealand (pp. 37–81). Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  6. Williams, N., Broadley, M.-E., & Lawson Te-Aho, K. (2012). Ngā taonga whakaako: Bicultural competence in early childhood education. Wellington: Ako Aotearoa National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence. Retrieved from: https://ako.ac.nz/assets/Knowledge-centre/NPF-09-009-Bicultural-competence-in-ECE/3c82e28a27/TOOL-Resource-kit-for-graduate-teachers.pdf.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Auckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sue Stover
    • 1
  • Valerie Margrain
    • 2
  1. 1.Auckland University of Technology, New ZealandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesKarlstad UniversityKarlstadSweden