Encyclopedia of Teacher Education

Living Edition
| Editors: Michael A. Peters

China’s Teacher Education System After the Reform and Opening-Up

  • Jianjun FengEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1179-6_4-1


After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the cultivation of teachers was based on an independent system of normal institution. Therefore, the cultivation of teachers is called normal education. In the 1990s, as comprehensive universities joined the ranks of teachers training, “normal education” was gradually replaced by “teacher education.”

Normal education refers to the teacher training activities carried out by normal colleges and universities, generally referring to pre-service teacher training. Teacher education is different from normal education. It includes both pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher training. It includes teacher education in normal colleges and universities, as well as teacher education in non-normal institutions and comprehensive universities. Teacher education system also refers to teacher education at all levels, including specialized secondary school, junior college, undergraduate and postgraduate, as well as teacher...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Education ScienceNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tien-hui Chiang
    • 1
  1. 1.Academy of Globalization and Education PolicySchool of Education, Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina