Encyclopedia of Ionic Liquids

Living Edition
| Editors: Suojiang Zhang

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Ionic Liquid: A New Platform for the Pharmaceutical Industry

  • Hemant Choudhary
  • Kai Li
  • Robin D. RogersEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6739-6_3-1


An active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is the primary biologically active component of a medical drug formulation that is responsible for the therapeutic effect. In ancient times, when the molecular structure and identity of the APIs were unknown, remedies composed of plants, animal by-products, and even minerals were utilized to heal, treat, and prevent the spread of disease. With the advancement of civilization, the field of medicine made fast progress, and APIs were synthesized rather being extracted from natural sources. Aspirin is generally considered the first synthetic drug, although others describe chloral hydrate as the first synthetic drug in medical history [1].

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an API, which are influenced by their structure, mostly govern the therapeutic efficiency, and owing to this, APIs have various chemical functional groups. These functional groups are usually capable of forming strong inter-/intramolecular interactions via...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Arts and SciencesThe University of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA
  2. 2.Joint BioEnergy Institute and Sandia National LaboratoriesEmeryvilleUSA
  3. 3.525 Solutions, Inc.TuscaloosaUSA
  4. 4.Chemical Sciences DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Zhonghao Li
    • 1
  • Maya Guncheva
  1. 1.Section 12 Emerging Applications of Ionic Liquids (Pharmacology, Food Science, Agriculture, Nuclear Science Technology, Optics)Shandong UniversityJinanChina