Skip to main content

Monitoring and Implementation of Children’s Rights

  • Reference work entry
  • First Online:
International Human Rights of Children

Part of the book series: International Human Rights ((IHR))

Abstract

This chapter reviews the monitoring, and requirements for domestic implementation, of the rights contained in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereafter CRC). It explains the State Party reporting system established under Article 44 of the CRC and the consideration of these reports by the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC Committee), established under Article 43 of the CRC. Next, the discussion turns to implementation, based largely on the requirements of General Comment No. 5 (2003) on General Measures of Implementation. Throughout these sections, extensive reference is made to subsidiary documents of the CRC Committee such as working methods guidelines, rules of procedure, and General Comments. The 2016 General Comment No. 19 of the CRC Committee (on public budgeting for the realization of children’s rights (Article 4)) receives some attention. A brief section which follows focuses on the monitoring role played by relevant special mandate holders, the monitoring mechanism established by the UN in relation to the use of child soldiers, and the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process as an element of monitoring of children rights (however, the chapter does not traverse the interplay between children’s rights and the work of the nine other treaty bodies, for reasons of space and coherence). The final and fifth section explores the role of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) in monitoring children’s rights.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 359.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 449.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • African Child Policy Forum African Report on Child Wellbeing (2016) ACPF Addis Ababa)

    Google Scholar 

  • Arts K (2014) Twenty-five years of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: achievements and challenges. Neth Int Law Rev 61(3):267–303

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boerefijn I (2013) Partnerships between National Human Rights Institutions and Human Rights Treaty Bodies in the implementation of concluding observations. In: Haeck Y, Leyh B, Burbano-Herrera C, Contreras-Garduno D (eds) The realisation of human rights: when theory meets practice- studies in honour of Leo Zwaak. Intersentia, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Child Rights Connect. Available at http://www.childrightsconnect.org/

  • Child Rights Connect. The reporting cycle of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: a guide for NGOs and NHRIs (NGO Guide)

    Google Scholar 

  • Chirwa D (2015) Monitoring and accountability mechanisms for the implementation of children’s rights in Africa. Working paper commissioned by the African Child Policy Forum

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2002) General comment no. 2 (CRC/GC/2002/2) the role of Independent National Human Rights Institutions in the promotion and protection of the rights of the child

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2005) General comment no. 5 (CRC/GC/2003/5) general measures of implementation of the convention on the rights of the child

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2010) Concluding observations Sudan (CRC/C/SDN/CO/3-4) NGO submission guide. Available at http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CRC/GuideNgoSubmission_en.pdf

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2012) Concluding observations Madagascar (CRC/C/MDG/CO/3-4)

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2014) Working methods for the participation of children in the reporting process of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. United Nations, Geneva, 16 Oct 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2015) Treaty specific guidelines regarding the form and content of periodic reports to be submitted by States Parties under article 44, paragraph 1 (b), of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations, Geneva, 3 Mar 2015 (Revised Reporting Guidelines)

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2016a) General comment no. 19 (CRC/C/GC/19) public budgeting for the realization of children’s rights (art. 4)

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2016b) Concluding observations South Africa (CRC/C/ZAF/CO/2)

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (2017) Concluding observations Cameroon (CRC/C/CMR/CO/3-5)

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child CRC Rules of Procedure, UN Doc. CRC/C/4/Rev.3, 16 Apr 2013

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child Working Methods. Available at www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CRC/Pages/WorkingMethods.aspx

  • Gran B (2011) The roles of independent children’s rights institutions in implementing the CRC. In: Invernizzi A, Williams J (eds) The human rights of children: from visions to implementation. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, p 221

    Google Scholar 

  • Heyman J, McNeill L (2014) Assessing compliance with the CRC: indicators of law and policy in 191 countries. Int J Child Rights 22(3):425

    Google Scholar 

  • https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/china_statistics.html

  • https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/vanuatu_statistics.htm

  • Krommendijk J (2014) The domestic impact and effectiveness of the process of state reporting under UN human rights treaties in the Netherlands, New Zealand and Finland. Paper-pushing or policy prompting? Intersentia, Antwerp

    Google Scholar 

  • Krommendijk J (2015) The domestic effectiveness of international human rights monitoring in established democracies. The case of the UN human rights treaty bodies. Rev Int Organ 10:489. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11558-015-9213-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liefaard T, Sloth-Nielsen J (eds) (2016) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: taking stock after 25 years and looking ahead Brill publishers, The Netherlands. ISBN 9789004295049

    Google Scholar 

  • Lundy L, Kilkelly U, Byrne B (2013) Incorporation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in Law: a comparative review. Int J Child Rights 21(3):395–441

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mechlem K (2009) Treaty bodies and the interpretation of human rights. Vanderbilt J Transl Law 42:905

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Flaherty M (2006) The concluding observations of United Nations treaty bodies. Hum Rights Law Rev 6(1):27–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Office of the High Commission for Human Rights. Guidance note on constructive dialogue A/69/285

    Google Scholar 

  • Office of the High Commission for Human Rights Guidelines on the independence and impartiality of members of the human rights treaty bodies (“the Addis Ababa guidelines”) A/67/222

    Google Scholar 

  • Office of the High Commission for Human Rights. National mechanisms for reporting and follow-up – a practical guide to effective state engagement with international human rights mechanisms (HR/PUB/16/1)

    Google Scholar 

  • Office of the High Commission for Human Rights. Strengthening and enhancing the effective functioning of the human rights treaty body system. A/Res/68/268 of 21 Apr 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • Organization of African Unity (OAU) (1990) African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, 11 July 1990, CAB/LEG/24.9/49. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b38c18.htm

  • Polonko K, Lombardo L, Bolling M (2016) Law reform, child maltreatment and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Int J Child Rights 24(1):29

    Google Scholar 

  • Report of the Expert of the Secretary General (1996) Impact of armed conflict on children UN Doc A/51/306

    Google Scholar 

  • Report of the Independent Expert for the UN study on violence against children GA Res 60/231

    Google Scholar 

  • Report of the Secretary-General (2016) Status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child A/71/150

    Google Scholar 

  • Rishmawi M (2006) Article 4: the nature of States Parties’ obligations. In: Alen A et al (eds) A commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Marthinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague

    Google Scholar 

  • Sahovic N, Doek J, Zermatten J (2013) The rights of the child in International Law. Stampfli Publishers, Berne

    Google Scholar 

  • Save the Children International and Dullah Omar Institute, University of the Western Cape (Forthcoming) Handbook on the implementation of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

    Google Scholar 

  • Sedletzki V (2016) Closing the gap between social and formal accountability: exploring the role of independent human rights institutions for children. In: Liefaard T, Sloth-Nielsen J (eds) 25 years of the CRC: taking stock and looking forward. Brill, The Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  • Simmons B (2009) Mobilizing for human rights. International law in domestic politics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Sloth-Nielsen J (2015) Implementation of children’s rights: a study of what is required in selected theme areas. Working paper commissioned by the African Child Policy Forum

    Google Scholar 

  • Sloth-Nielsen J (2017a) The African charter on the rights and welfare of the child. In: Boezaart T (ed) Child law in South Africa, 2nd edn. Juta and Company, Cape Town (forthcoming)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sloth-Nielsen J (2017b) Child justice. In: Boezaart T (ed) Child law in South Africa 2nd edn. Juta and Company, Cape Town (forthcoming)

    Google Scholar 

  • Special Representative of the Secretary General on Children and Armed Conflict Working Paper1. Six grave violations- the legal foundation. Available at https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/publications/WorkingPaper-1_SixGraveViolationsLegalFoundation.pdf

  • Spronk van der Meer S (2014) The right to health of the child. Intersentia, Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein J (2016) The prevention of child statelessness at birth – the UNCRC committee’s role and potential. Int J Child Rights 24(3):499 at 512

    Google Scholar 

  • Theytaz Bergman L (2007) NGO reporting under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, conference presentation Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  • UN General Assembly, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, 12 July 1993, A/CONF.157 /23. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b39ec.html. Accessed 1 May 2018

  • UN Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict. https://www.un.org/sc/suborg/en/subsidiary/wgcaac. Accessed 7 Feb 2017

  • UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre Law Reform and Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/493-law-reform-and-the-implementation-of-the-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child.html

  • UNICEF–IRC (2008) Law reform and the implementation of the convention on the rights of the child. Available at https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/law_reform_crc_imp.pdf

  • United Nations Children’s Fund (2013) Championing children’s rights: a global study of independent human rights institutions for children. UNICEF Office of Research, Florence

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Children’s Fund Law Reform (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  • UPR-Info. The butterfly effect. Available at https://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/general-document/pdf/2016_the_butterfly_effect.pdf

  • Van den Hole W (2014) Children’s rights from a legal perspective in Routledge international handbook on children’s rights studies. Routledge, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallace R, Martin Ortega M (2013) International law, 7th edn. Sweet and Maxwell, London

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Julia Sloth-Nielsen .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this entry

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Sloth-Nielsen, J. (2019). Monitoring and Implementation of Children’s Rights. In: Kilkelly, U., Liefaard, T. (eds) International Human Rights of Children. International Human Rights. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4184-6_2

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics