Recruitment of Research Participants

  • Narendar ManoharEmail author
  • Freya MacMillan
  • Genevieve Z. Steiner
  • Amit Arora
Living reference work entry


Successful recruitment and retention of study participants are essential for the overall success of a research study. The recruitment process involves identifying potential research participants and providing them with the information to establish their interest to join a proposed research study. Research studies are often time and labor intensive, and inappropriate recruitment of research participants can significantly impact the study findings. This chapter will introduce readers to a range of associated issues and offer possible solutions and mitigation strategies to enhance research participant engagement. First, this chapter describes the issues surrounding investigators’ and potential participants’ expectations related to their involvement in research. Next, the chapter will identify the facilitators, barriers, and challenges associated with recruitment and retention of participant. Then, the chapter will highlight some traditional and modern recruitment and retention techniques, for participation in health research across the life course: children and adolescents, adults, and seniors. Last, the chapter will detail the specific attention, resources, and sensitivity required to maximize recruitment and retention when conducting research with specific population groups such as minority populations and medically compromised people.


Recruitment strategies Study participants Participant engagement Participation Target population Minority recruitment Opt in–opt out 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narendar Manohar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Freya MacMillan
    • 2
  • Genevieve Z. Steiner
    • 3
  • Amit Arora
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.School of Science and HealthWestern Sydney UniversityPenrithAustralia
  2. 2.School of Science and Health and Translational Health Research Institute (THRI)Western Sydney UniversityPenrithAustralia
  3. 3.NICM and Translational Health Research Institute (THRI)Western Sydney UniversityPenrithAustralia
  4. 4.Oral Health Services and Sydney Dental HospitalSydney Local Health DistrictSydneyAustralia
  5. 5.Discipline of Paediatrics and Child HealthSydney Medical SchoolSydneyAustralia
  6. 6.Collaboration for Oral Health Outcomes Research, Translation, and Evaluation (COHORTE) Research GroupIngham Institute for Applied Medical ResearchLiverpoolAustralia

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