Doctoral Program Types and Legitimacy of Models: Different Forms for Different Purposes

  • Fernando F. Padró
  • Jonathan H. Green
  • Robert Templeton
Living reference work entry
Part of the University Development and Administration book series (UDAA)


Globally, there has been a shift in Higher Education. The rise in the number of nontraditional students and the educational inclusiveness obligations of universities has seen the development of differentiated doctoral pedagogies to meet the demand for flexible enrolments. The shift in university thinking that occurred due to student demand and political interference into higher education financially and socially has necessitated a change in traditional doctoral pedagogy to provide for the educational motivations of these students. This chapter will explore these factors relative to the doctoral degree models that have evolved in various countries in response to student, industrial, and political requirements.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando F. Padró
    • 1
  • Jonathan H. Green
    • 1
  • Robert Templeton
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern QueenslandToowoombaAustralia

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