Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

2019 Edition
| Editors: David M. Kaplan

Food Cooperatives in Canada

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1179-9_591



Food has played a key role in the development of the cooperative model. From the initial offering by the Rochdale Equitable Pioneers of butter, sugar, flour, and oatmeal, cooperatives have provided access to food for those with limited means (Holyoake 1893). Cooperatives have addressed issues of access by involving the community in the development of firms that address basic needs such as food. This discussion will look at the development of cooperatives as these firms address a community’s basic need for food by applying the cooperative principles. The development of cooperatives and their guiding principles represent an ethical response to perceived injustices within the economic system.

This entry will look into the ethical question that revolves around the focus on capital within the investor-owned firm (IOF) and the focus on the member within the cooperative firm. The capital focus of an IOF drives the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Alkon, A. H., & Norgaard, K. M. (2009). Breaking the food chains: An investigation of food justice activism*. Sociological Inquiry, 79(3), 289–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, P. (1999). Reweaving the food security safety net: Mediating entitlement and entrepreneurship. Agriculture and Human Values, 16(2), 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyatzis, R. E., & Khawaja, M. (2014). How Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan Led a change process that started a movement. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 50(3), 284–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fairbairn, B., MacPherson, I., Russell, N. (Eds.) (2000). Canadian co-operatives in the year 2000: Memory, mutual aid, and the millennium (2000). In University of Saskatchewan. Centre for the Study of Co-operatives (Ed.). Saskatoon: Centre for the Study of Co-operatives, University of Saskatchewan.Google Scholar
  5. Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  6. Fresco, L. O. (2009). Challenges for food system adaptation today and tomorrow. Environmental Science and Policy., 12, 378–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gomez, G. M., & Helmsing, A. H. J. (2008). Selective spatial closure and local economic development: What do we learn from the Argentine local currency system? World Development, 36(11), 2489–2511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holyoake, G. J. (1893). The history of the Rochdale pioneers, 1844–1892. London: S. Sonnenschein & Co.Google Scholar
  10. ICA – International Co-operative Alliance. (1995). Co-operative identity, values & principles. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from http://ica.coop/en/what-co-op/co-operative-indenty-values-princples.com
  11. Keen, G. (1950) The birth of a movement: Reminiscences of a co-operator. United Co- Operators of Canada Collection.Google Scholar
  12. MacPherson, I. (1979). The history of the Canadian Co-operative movement: a summary, a little historiography, and some issues. Retrieved September 1, 2012, from www.socialeconomyhub.ca
  13. McGregor, S. (2005). Sustainable consumer empowerment through critical consumer education: A typology of consumer education approaches. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 29, 437–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ostrom, E. (2000). Reformulating the commons. Swiss Political Science Review, 6(1), 29–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pfeil, M. R. (2012). Food, justice, and economic cooperation. In Schaefer, J. (2013). Environmental justice and climate change: Assessing Pope Benedict XVI’s ecological vision for the Catholic Church in the United States. The Institute for Church Life: Lexington Books. Lanham, MD.Google Scholar
  16. Via Campesina. (1996). The right to produce and access to land. Voice of the Turtle. Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://www.voiceoftheturtle.org/library/1996%20Declaration%20of%20Food%20Sovereignty.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Business and Administration DepartmentUniversity of WinnipegWinnipegCanada