Hinduism and Tribal Religions

Living Edition
| Editors: Pankaj Jain, Rita Sherma, Madhu Khanna


  • Ravi Khangai
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1036-5_77-1


Apad-dharma and DharmaDharma is one of the most difficult words to translate into English. Sometimes it is refereed as sacred duty, sometimes as a law, sometimes as an obligation. Apad means crises and Apad-dharma is a duty or acceptable behavior at the time of the crises. The epic gives a message that there could be a significant difference between the Dharma at the normal times and the Apad-dharma.

Asharamas According to the Indian tradition, a man’s life was divided into four stages, i.e., Brahmacharya (the celibate), Grihastha (the householder), Vanaprastha (the forest dweller), and Sanyasa (the renouncer).

Kauravas Literally, the descendents of the Kuru dynasty. However, the word is mostly used for the sons of the Dhṛtarāṣţra and their supporters.

Nīyoga – A practice by which women used to have sons from men other than her husband in special circumstances.

SvyaṃvaraA ceremony in which a princess selected a groom. Sometimes a difficult task is to be performed by a...

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  1. 1.
    van Buitenen JAB (1973) The Mahābhārata. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HistoryRashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur UniversityNagpurIndia
  2. 2.Hindu University of AmericaOrlandoUSA