Hinduism and Tribal Religions

Living Edition
| Editors: Pankaj Jain, Rita Sherma, Madhu Khanna


  • Aleksandar Uskokov
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1036-5_271-1


A blanket term covering several schools of Vedānta.

Origin in the Brahma Sūtra

The Vedāntic theology of bhedābheda, the doctrine of difference and non-difference, is certainly the oldest systematic form of Vedānta. It concerns the relationship between Brahman the principal category of Vedānta with the individual Selves on the one hand and with the world on the other. The doctrine of bhedābheda is evident in the text of the Brahma sūtra (BS) itself, and it seems that it developed as a response to the soul-matter dualism of Sāṅkhya. At its barest, the doctrine says that both the individual Selves and the world are in some way simultaneously different from and identical with Brahman. Let us see how this looked like on both sides in the BS.

In BS 1.4.20-22, three Vedāntins are referenced on how it may be justified that the Upaniṣads sometimes talk both about the individual and the Supreme Self, jīvātmanand Paramātman, in the frame of single textual units by using the same term...

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of South Asian Languages and CivilizationsUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA