Buddhism and Jainism

2017 Edition
| Editors: K. T. S. Sarao, Jeffery D. Long

Pārśvanātha (Jainism)

  • Gregory M. ClinesEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-0852-2_702

Synonyms

Definition

In Jainism, Pārśvanātha was the 23rd and penultimate Tīrthaṅkara (ford maker) of the current world age.

Introduction to Pārśvanātha

Along with the 24th Tīrthaṅkara, Vardhamāna Mahāvīra, Pārśvanātha is one of only two Tīrthaṅkaras believed to have been a historical individual. Scholarly consensus dates Pārśvanātha to sometime between the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.E. Scholars also believe the parents of Mahāvīra to have been lay followers of Pārśvanātha, and while the direct relationship between Pārśvanātha and Mahāvīra is difficult to trace (as will be shown below), it is widely believed that Mahāvīra originally took initiation within Pārśvanātha’s ascetic lineage. In iconography, Pārśvanātha’s emblem is the cobra or snake, his complexion is blue-black or blue-green, and his attendant deities are Dharaṇendra and Padmāvatī. Unlike icons of other Tīrthaṅkaras, which are for the most part identifiable only by either the emblems carved into the icon’s base...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    Dundas P (2002) The Jains, 2nd edn. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (1962) The lives of sixty-three illustrious persons, 6 vols (trans: Johnson HM). Oriental Institute, Baroda (specifically volume 5)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bollee W (2008) Acarya Gunabhadra's Parsvacaritam: life of Parsva. Hindi Granth Karyalay, MumbaiGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    von Glasenapp H (1999) Jainism: an Indian religion of salvation (trans: Shrotri SB). Motilal Banarsidass, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cort JE (2010) Framing the Jina: narratives of icons and idols in Jain history. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cort JE (1988) Pilgrimage to Shankheshvar Pārśvanātha. Cent Study World Relig Bull 14(1):63–72, Harvard Center for the Study of World Religions, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Committee on the Study of ReligionHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA