Marketing in Higher Education
The rise of marketing in higher education is usually associated with an increasingly globalized, managed, marketized, and competition-driven world of higher education. From a narrow perspective, marketing concerns the processes of communication concerning the product or service that is being provided. From a more broad perspective, one can also conceptualize market as “a frame of mind in which questions are asked about the optimum relationship between an organization and its environment, or parts of its environment, and action is taken that is informed by the answers to these questions” (Litten 1980, p. 41).
Historically, marketing initially entered the vocabulary of higher education research in the early 1970s US higher education (Krachenberg 1972), as institutions were increasingly competing for students. Initial studies explored student choice (as consumer behavior), donor relationships, and fundraising. By 1980, Litten (1980, p. 42) notes that “academic marketing has...
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