Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Estonia

  • Mari ElkenEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_564-1

Higher Education Systems Development

Estonia is a small country in North-East Europe, with a population about 1.3 million (2015). Following the Northern crusades in the thirteenth century, the country has a history of being under foreign rule, including German, Danish, Polish, Swedish, and Russian rule. In 1918, an independent Estonian Republic was established, lasting until the occupations during and after World War II. Having regained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the country has gone through a rapid transformation process of society and the higher education sector since then. Changes have been characterized by system expansion, diversification of institutional structures, integration of old academies of science into universities, and implementing the Bologna Process (Huisman et al. 2007).

Historically, Estonian higher education dates back to 1632 when University of Tartu was established by King Gustav Adolf II of Sweden. After establishing the Republic in 1918, a...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU)OsloNorway

Section editors and affiliations

  • Barbara M. Kehm
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Education, Robert Owen Centre for Educational ChangeUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUnited Kingdom