Skip to main content

Internationalization of Higher Education Research and Careers, Europe


Academic market internationalization; Internationalization of academic activities; Mobility of academics

General Definition

Internationalization of higher education research and careers is largely associated with academic mobility. In Europe, the share of mobile academics varies strongly depending on the country and concerns different stages of the careers. Being mobile has various effects on the careers according to national contexts but tends to increase the international dimension of the research scope through increasing academic international social capital.


Higher Education Institutions’ territories have varied over time, as the transformation of academic circulations and geographies since the Middle-Ages illustrates. In Europe, peregrinatio academica, that is, individuals’ mobility, facilitated by the use of a shared language, as in the fourteenth- and fifteenth-century universities, coexisted with some universities attempt to strengthen the political...

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Bradley, S. 2016. Swiss scientists share Brexit concerns, in Accessed 11 June 2017.

  • Cañibano, C., F.J. Otamendi, and I. Andújar. 2008. Measuring and assessing researcher mobility from CV analysis: The case of the Ramón y Cajal programme in Spain. Research Evaluation 17 (1): 17–31.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Commission Européenne. 2013. Staff mobility in higher education. National policies and programmes, Eurydice Overview. EACEA. 19p.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cruz-Castro, L., and L. Sanz-Menéndez. 2010. Mobility versus job stability: Assessing tenure and productivity outcomes. Research Policy 39: 27–38.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • EHEA. 2012. Mobility strategy 2020 for the European Higher Education Area. Bucharest: Ministerial Conference.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fumasoli, T., G. Goastellec, and B. Kehm. 2014. Academic careers in Europe: Trends, challenges, perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goastellec, G., and N. Pekari. 2013. Internationalization of the academic profession in Europe: Careers and practices. In The work situation of the academic profession in Europe: Findings of a survey in twelve European countries, ed. U. Teichler and E.A. Höhle, 229–248. Dordrecht: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goastellec, G., and F. Crettaz von Roten. 2017. The societal embeddedness of academic markets: From sex to gender in the Swiss context in Challenges and options: the academic profession in Europe. In The changing academy – the changing academic profession in international comparative perspective series. ed. M. Machado-Taylor, V.M. Soares, and U. Teichler, 18:211–229. The Netherlands: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Halevi, G., and H.F. Moed. 2012. International scientific migration and collaboration patterns following a bibliometrics line of investigation. New York: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • IDEA Consult. 2013. Support for continued data collection and analysis concerning mobility patterns and career paths of researchers, Deliverable 8 – Final report more2. Brussels: European Commission, Research Directorate-General.

    Google Scholar 

  • Knight, J. 1999. Internationalisation of higher education. In Quality and internationalisation in higher education, ed. OECD, 13–28. Paris: OECD – IMHE Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kwiek, M. 2015. The internationalization of research in Europe: A quantitative study of 11 national systems from a micro-level perspective. Journal of Studies in International Education 19 (4): 1–19.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marginson, S., and M. van der Wende. 2009. Europeanisation, international rankings and faculty mobility. Three cases in higher education globalisation. In Higher education to 2030, vol. 2: Globalisation, ed. OECD and Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, 109–144. Paris: OECD Publishing.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Musselin, C. 2004. Towards a European academic labour market? Some lessons drawn from empirical studies on academic mobility. Higher Education 48: 55–78.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Myklebust, J. P. 2013. Sharp rise in foreign PhD enrolments in Scandinavia. University World News. 272. Accessed the 15 May 2017.

  • Probst, C., and G. Goastellec. 2012. Internationalization and the academic labour market. In The academic profession in Europe, new tasks, new challenges, ed. B. Kehm, and U. Teichler. The Netherlands: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rostan, M., F. Huang, and M.J. Finkelstein. 2014. The internationalization of the academy: Findings, open questions and implications. In The internationalization of the academy. Changes, realities and prospects, ed. F. Huang, M.J. Finkelstein, and M. Rostan. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Teichler, U. 2015. Academic mobility and migration : What we know and what we do not know. European Review 23 (S1): S6–S37.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • van Der Wende, M. 2015. International academic mobility: Towards a concentration of the minds in Europe. European Review 23: S70–S88.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Welch, A. 1997. The peripatetic professor: The internationalisation of the academic profession. Higher Education 34: 323–345.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gaële Goastellec .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this entry

Cite this entry

Goastellec, G. (2018). Internationalization of Higher Education Research and Careers, Europe. In: Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Springer, Dordrecht.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-94-017-9553-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-017-9553-1

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference EducationReference Module Humanities and Social Sciences