Intergovernmental Policies in Higher Education, Bologna
Origin and Evolution
The Bologna Process (hereinafter referred to as Bologna) is the designation given to a wide-ranging and ambitious program of reforms undertaken since 1999 in Europe, through a joint intergovernmental initiative, in order to bring convergence among the higher education systems of European countries.
The Sorbonne Declaration – signed by the higher education ministers of France, Germany, the UK, and Italy in 1998 – was a precursor of the Bologna Process. Entitled “Joint declaration on harmonisation of the architecture of the European higher education system,” the Sorbonne Declaration aimed at creating an open European area for higher learning which respected diversity, but which also required efforts to remove barriers and to develop a framework for teaching and learning. This was expected to enhance mobility and an ever closer cooperation. A year later, higher education ministers from 29 European countries gathered in the Italian city of Bologna and signed the...
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