Encyclopedia of Estuaries

2016 Edition
| Editors: Michael J. Kennish

Residence Time

  • Lisa V. LucasEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8801-4_198

Definition

Residence time is defined as (1) the time taken by a water parcel or particle to leave a defined region of interest (Zimmerman, 1976; Delhez et al., 2004; de Brauwere et al., 2011) or (2) the time for the mass of a scalar (or the volume of freshwater; Dyer, 1997; Geyer, 1997) within a water body to be renewed, given a known renewal rate (Bolin and Rodhe, 1973; Geyer et al., 2000).

Essential concepts, applications, and methods of estimation

“Residence time” is a commonly used term to generally convey time spent by water, dissolved substances, or particles within a defined region or water body. However, specific definitions and mathematical descriptions of this transport timescale vary considerably in the literature, as pointed out by others (Takeoka, 1984; Monsen et al., 2002; Sheldon and Alber, 2002). The definitions provided above are two of the most common and differ significantly from each other in their underlying assumptions, precise meanings, and methods of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Bolin, B., and Rodhe, H., 1973. A note on the concepts of age distribution and transit time in natural reservoirs. Tellus, 25, 58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dame, R. F., 2012. Ecology of Marine Bivalves: An Ecosystem Approach, 2nd edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  3. de Brauwere, A., de Brye, B., Blaise, S., and Deleersnijder, E., 2011. Residence time, exposure time and connectivity in the Scheldt Estuary. Journal of Marine Systems, 84, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Brye, B., de Brauwere, A., Gourgue, O., Delhez, E. J. M., and Deleersnijder, E., 2012. Water renewal timescales in the Scheldt Estuary. Journal of Marine Systems, 94, 74–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Delhez, E. J. M., Heemink, A. W., and Deleersnijder, E., 2004. Residence time in a semi-enclosed domain from the solution of an adjoint problem. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 61, 691–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dyer, K. R., 1997. Estuaries: A Physical Introduction. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Geyer, W. R., 1997. Influence of wind on dynamics and flushing of shallow estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 44, 713–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geyer, W. R., Morris, J. T., Prahl, F. G., and Jay, D. A., 2000. Interaction between physical processes and ecosystem structure: a comparative approach. In Hobbie, J. E. (ed.), Estuarine Science: A Synthetic Approach to Research and Practice. Washington: Island Press, pp. 177–206.Google Scholar
  9. Jonkers, N., Laane, R. W. P. M., de Graaf, C., and de Voogt, P., 2005. Fate modeling of nonylphenol ethoxylates and their metabolites in the Dutch Scheldt and Rhine estuaries: validation with new field data. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 62, 141–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lucas, L. V., Thompson, J. K., 2012. Changing restoration rules: exotic bivalves interact with residence time and depth to control phytoplankton productivity. Ecosphere, 3(12), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Monsen, N. E., Cloern, J. E., Lucas, L. V., and Monismith, S. G., 2002. A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales. Limnology and Oceanography, 47(5), 1545–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nixon, S. W., Ammerman, J. W., Atkinson, L. P., Berounsky, V. M., Billen, G., Boicourt, W. C., Boynton, W. R., Church, T. M., Di Toro, D. M., Elmgren, R., Garber, J. H., Giblin, A. E., Jahnke, R. A., Owens, N. J. P., Pilson, M. E. Q., and Seitzinger, S. P., 1996. The fate of nitrogen and phosphorus at the land-sea margin of the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeochemistry, 35, 141–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sheldon, J. E., and Alber, M., 2002. A comparison of residence time calculations using simple compartment models of the Altamaha River Estuary, Georgia. Estuaries, 25(6B), 1304–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sheldon, J. E., and Alber, M., 2006. The calculation of estuarine turnover times using freshwater fraction and tidal prism models: a critical evaluation. Estuaries and Coasts, 29(1), 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shen, J., and Haas, L., 2004. Calculating age and residence time in the tidal York River using three-dimensional model experiments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 61, 449–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Takeoka, H., 1984. Fundamental concepts of exchange and transport time scales in a coastal sea. Continental Shelf Research, 3(3), 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vallino, J. J., and Hopkinson, C. S., 1998. Estimation of dispersion and characteristic mixing times in Plum Island Sound Estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 46, 333–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zimmerman, J. T. F., 1976. Mixing and flushing of tidal embayments in the western Dutch Wadden Sea Part I: distribution of salinity and calculation of mixing time scales. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 10(2), 149–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.United States Geological SurveyMenlo ParkUSA