Agrawal PN, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Behera D, Prabhakar S, Jindal SK. Management of respiratory failure in severe neuroparalytic snake envenomation. Neurol India. 2001;49:25–8.
Anon. American Thoracic Society documents. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184:388–416. 329p
Barber CM, Isbister GK, Hodgson WC. Solving the ‘Brown snake paradox’: in vitro characterisation of Australasian snake presynaptic neurotoxin activity. Toxicol Lett. 2012;210:318–23.
Barr SC. Clinical features therapy and epidemiology of tiger snake bite in dogs and cats. Aust Vet J. 1984;61(7):208–12.
Bassett T. A study on the effects of tiger snake venom and antivenom on the clotting system of the dog. Master of Veterinary Science thesis, University of Melbourne. 2002.
Berton DC. Quantitative versus qualitative cultures of respiratory secretions for clinical outcomes in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(10): CD006482. 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25354013.
Best P. Snake envenomation of companion animals. Sydney Postgraduate Foundation in Veterinary Science; 1998, p. 231–48.
Bhattacharya P, Chakraborty A. Neurotoxic snake bite with respiratory failure. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2007;11:161.
Biӧrck G. Chapter VI: Significance of myoglobin in clinical medicine and pathology. Acta Medica Scandinavica. 1949;133:47–62.
Boyd JW. The mechanisms relating to increases in plasma enzymes and isoenzymes in diseases of animals. Vet Clin Pathol. 1983;12:9–24.
Boyd JW. Serum enzymes in the diagnosis of disease in man and animals. J Comp Pathol. 1988;98:381–404.
Broad AJ, Sutherland SK, Coulter AR. The lethality in mice of dangerous Australian and other snake venom. Toxicon. 1979;17:661–4.
Brown CVR, Rhee P, Chan L, Evans K, Demetriades D, Velmahos GC. Preventing renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis: do bicarbonate and mannitol make a difference? J Trauma Injury Infect Crit Care. 2004;56:1191–6.
Brunetto MA, Gomes MO, Andre MR, Teshima E, Goncalves KN, Pereira GT, Ferraudo AS, Carciofi AC. Effects of nutritional support on hospital outcome in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2010;20:224–31.
Callens AJ, Bartges JW. Urinalysis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2015;45:621–37.
Campbell CH. Venomous snake bite in papua and its treatment with tracheotomy, artificial respiration and antivenene. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1964;58:263–73.
Casamento AJ, Isbister GK. Thrombotic microangiopathy in two tiger snake envenomations. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2011;39:1124–7.
Church S, Forbes G. Detection of snake venom in horse urine and plasma – validation of the snake venom detection kit in horses, RIRDC Publication No. 11/007. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; 2011.
Churchman A, O’Leary MA, Buckley NA, Page CB, Tankel A, Gavaghan C, Holdgate A, Brown SG, Isbister GK. Clinical effects of red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenoming and correlation with venom concentrations: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-11). Med J Aust. 2010;193:696–700.
Condrea E. Chapter 13. Hemolytic effects of snake venoms. In: Lee C, editor. Snake venoms. Berlin: Springer; 1979.
Cox JC, Moisidis AV, Shepherd JM, Drane DP, Jones SL. A novel format for a rapid sandwich EIA and its application to the identification of snake venoms. J Immunol Methods. 1992;146:213–8.
Cullimore A, Lester G, Swindells K. Tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a horse. Aust Vet J. 2013;91:381–4.
Estrada R, Herrera M, Segura Á, Araya J, Boschini C, Gutiérrez JM, León G. Intravenous administration of equine-derived whole IgG antivenom does not induce early adverse reactions in non-envenomed horses and cows. Biologicals. 2010;38:664–9.
Fawcett A, Shea G, Cutter SM. Black Whipsnake (Demansia papuensis species group) envenomation in a Jack Russell terrier. Aust Vet Practitioner. 2014;44:627–30.
Fitzgerald WE. Snakebite in the horse. Aust Vet J. 1975;51:37–9.
Furneaux RW. Successful recovery in a dog from a common Brown Snake (Demansia textalis) bite. Aust Vet J. 1967;43:147–8.
Gordon RN. The sypmtoms, diagnosis and treatment of snake-bite in the dog. Aust Vet J. 1958;34:216–21.
Gulati A, Isbister GK, Duffull SB. Effect of Australian elapid venoms on blood coagulation: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-17). Toxicon. 2013;61:94–104.
Hart AJ, Hodgson WC, O’Leary M, Isbister GK. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the myotoxic venom of Pseudechis australis (mulga snake) in the anesthetised rat. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014;52:604–10.
Hawdon GM, Winkel KD. Could this be snakebite? Aust Fam Physician. 1997;26:1386–91 , 1393–1384.
Heller J, Bosward KL, Hodgson JL, Cole FL, Reid SWJ, Hodgson DR, Mellor DJ. Snake envenomation in dogs in New South Wales. Aust Vet J. 2005;83:286–92.
Heller J, Bosward KL, Hodgson DR, Pottie R. Anuric renal failure in a dog after red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation. Aust Vet J. 2006;84:158–62.
Hill FW. Snake bite in dogs. Aust Vet J. 1979;55:82–5.
Hill FWG, Campbell T. Snake Bite in Cats. Aust Vet J. 1978;54:437–9.
Holloway SA, Parry BW. Observations on blood coagulation after snakebite in dogs and cats. Aust Vet J. 1989;66(11):364–6.
Hopper K, Powell LL. Basics of mechanical ventilation for dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2013;43:955–69.
Hopper K, Beck C, Slocombe R. Megaoesophagus in adult dogs secondary to Australian tiger snake envenomation. Aust Vet J. 2001;79:672–5.
Hopper K, Haskins SC, Kass PH, Rezende ML, Aldrich J. Indications, management, and outcome of long-term positive-pressure ventilation in dogs and cats: 148 cases (1990–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;230:64–75.
Indrawirawan Y, Sheridan G, McAlees T. Clinical features of Mainland tiger and Eastern brown snake envenomation in dogs and cats in Melbourne. Aust Vet Practitioner. 2014;44:704–12.
Ireland G, Brown SG, Buckley N, Stormer J, Currie B, White J, Spain D, Isbister GK. Changes in serial laboratory test results in snakebite patients: when can we safely exclude envenoming? Med J Aust. 2010;193:285–90.
Isbister GK, Currie BJ. Suspected snakebite: one year prospective study of emergency department presentations. Emerg Med (Fremantle). 2003;15:160–9.
Isbister GK, Little M, Cull G, McCoubrie D, Lawton P, Szabo F, Kennedy J, Trethewy C, Luxton G, Brown SG, Currie BJ. Thrombotic microangiopathy from Australian brown snake (Pseudonaja) envenoming. Intern Med J. 2007a;37:523–8.
Isbister GK, Duffull SB, Brown SG, Investigators ASP. Failure of antivenom to improve recovery in Australian snakebite coagulopathy. QJM. 2009;102:563–8.
Isbister GK, Scorgie FE, O’Leary MA, Seldon M, Brown SG, Lincz LF, Investigators ASP. Factor deficiencies in venom-induced consumption coagulopathy resulting from Australian elapid envenomation: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-10). J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:2504–13.
Isbister GK, O’Leary MA, Elliott M, Brown SG. Tiger snake (Notechis spp.) envenoming: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-13). Med J Aust. 2012;197:173–7.
Isbister GK, Buckley NA, Brown SG. Tiger snake (Notechis spp.) envenoming: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-13). Med J Aust. 2013a;198:194–5.
Isbister GK, Buckley NA, Page CB, Scorgie FE, Lincz LF, Seldon M, Brown SG, Investigators ASP. A randomized controlled trial of fresh frozen plasma for treating venom-induced consumption coagulopathy in cases of Australian snakebite (ASP-18). J Thromb Haemost. 2013b;11:1310–8.
Jacoby-Alner TE, Stephens N, Davern KM, Balmer L, Brown SG, Swindells K. Histopathological analysis and in situ localisation of Australian tiger snake venom in two clinically envenomed domestic animals. Toxicon. 2011;58:304–14.
Jelinek GA, Smith A, Lynch D, Celenza A, Irving I, Michalopoulos N, Erber W, Joske DJ. The effect of adjunctive fresh frozen plasma administration on coagulation parameters and survival in a canine model of antivenom-treated brown snake envenoming. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2005;33:36–40.
Johnston CI, O’Leary MA, Brown SG, Currie BJ, Halkidis L, Whitaker R, Close B, Isbister GK, Investigators ASP. Death adder envenoming causes neurotoxicity not reversed by antivenom – Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-16). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1841.
Johnston CI, Brown SG, O’Leary MA, Currie BJ, Greenberg R, Taylor M, Barnes C, White J, Isbister GK, ASP investigators. Mulga snake (Pseudechis australis) envenoming: a spectrum of myotoxicity, anticoagulant coagulopathy, haemolysis and the role of early antivenom therapy – Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-19). Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013;51:417–24.
Judge P. A case of suspected venom depot syndrome in a dog envenomed by an eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis). Aust Vet Practitioner. 2013;43:475–8.
Judge PR. Coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenomation of a dog. Aust Vet J. 2015;93:412–6.
Kelers K. A study of snake venom detection kit use in dogs and cats. Master of Veterinary Studies thesis, University of Melbourne; 2005.
Kellaway CH. The venom of Notechis Scutatus. Med J Aust. 1929;1:348–58.
Kellaway CH. Observations on the certainly lethal dose of the venom of the black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) for the common laboratory animals. Med J Aust. 1930;2:33–41.
King LG, Hendricks JC. Use of positive-pressure ventilation in dogs and cats: 41 cases (1990–1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1994;204:1045–52.
Knochel JP. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria. Annu Rev Med. 1982;33:435–43.
Kuruppu S, Fry BG, Hodgson WC. In vitro neurotoxic and myotoxic effects of the venom from the black whip snake (Demansia papuensis). Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33:364–8.
Lane J, O’Leary MA, Isbister GK. Coagulant effects of black snake (Pseudechis spp.) venoms and in vitro efficacy of commercial antivenom. Toxicon. 2011;58:239–46.
Lewis PF. Snakebite in animals in Australia. Postgraduate Foundation in Veterinary Science, Sydney, Australia. 1978. p. 287–309.
Lewis PF. The pathology, diagnosis and prophylaxis of tiger snake envenomation in the dog. University of Melbourne; 1984.
Lewis PF. Common tiger snake envenomation in dogs and mice – relationship between the amount of venom injected and the onset of clinical signs. Aust Vet J. 1994a;71:130–2.
Lewis PF. Myotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of common tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) venom in the dog. Aust Vet J. 1994b;71:136–9.
Lewis PF. Some toxicity thresholds for the clinical effects of common Tiger Snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in the dog. Aust Vet J. 1994c;71:133–5.
Liu DT, Brown DC, Silverstein DC. Early nutritional support is associated with decreased length of hospitalization in dogs with septic peritonitis: a retrospective study of 45 cases (2000–2009). J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2012;22:453–9.
Lund HS, Kristiansen V, Eggertsdottir AV, Skancke E, Ranheim B. Adverse reactions to equine-derived F(ab′)2-antivenin in 54 dogs envenomated by Vipera berus berus. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2013;23:532–7.
Madaras F, Mirtschin PJ, Kuchel TIM. Antivenom development in Australia. Toxin Rev. 2005;24:79–94.
Maduwage K, O’Leary MA, Isbister GK. Diagnosis of snake envenomation using a simple phospholipase A2 assay. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4827.
Maduwage KP, Scorgie FE, Lincz LF, O’Leary MA, Isbister GK. Procoagulant snake venoms have differential effects in animal plasmas: implications for antivenom testing in animal models. Thromb Res. 2016;137:174–7.
Marshall L. Positive cross reactivity of Bardick Snake (Notechis curtus) venom with death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus) antivenom and negative reactivity with tiger (Notechis scutatus) antivenom. Copeia. 1985;1:257–9.
Martin C. On some effects upon the blood produced by the injection of the venom of the Australian Black Snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus). J Physiol. 1893;15:380–400.
McMillan MW, Whitaker KE, Hughes D, Brodbelt DC, Boag AK. Effect of body position on the arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in spontaneously breathing, conscious dogs in an intensive care unit. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2009;19:564–70.
Mebs D, Ehrenfeld M, Samejima Y. Local necrotizing effect of snake venoms on skin and muscle: relationship to serum creatine kinase. Toxicon. 1983;21:393–404.
Mirtschin PJ, Masci P, Paton DC, Kuchel T. Snake bites recorded by veterinary practices in Australia. Aust Vet J. 1998;76:195–8.
Mohr AJ, Leisewitz AL, Jacobson LS, Steiner JM, Ruaux CG, Williams DA. Effect of early enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability, intestinal protein loss, and outcome in dogs with severe parvoviral enteritis. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17:791–8.
Moisidis AV, James T, Smith HV, Cox JC. Snake envenomation in cats and its detection by rapid immunoassay. Aust Vet J. 1996;74:143–7.
Murray PT, Mehta RL, Shaw A, Ronco C, Endre Z, Kellum JA, Chawla LS, Cruz D, Ince C, Okusa MD, ADQI workgroup. Potential use of biomarkers in acute kidney injury: report and summary of recommendations from the 10th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference. Kidney Int. 2014;85:513–21.
Nakada F, Uezu N, Ohshiro M, Miyagi K. Relation between serum creatine phosphokinase activity and the amount of habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) snake venom injected in thigh muscle in rabbits. Toxicon. 1980;18:351–5.
Nakada K, Nakada F, Ito E, Inoue F. Quantification of myonecrosis and comparison of necrotic activity of snake venoms by determination of creatine phosphokinase activity in mice sera. Toxicon. 1984;22:921–30.
O’Leary MA, Isbister GK. Commercial monovalent antivenoms in Australia are polyvalent. Toxicon. 2009;54:192–5.
Ong RKC, Lenard ZM, Swindells KL, Raisis AL. Extradural haematoma secondary to brown snake (Pseudonaja sp.) envenomation. Aust Vet J. 2009;87:152–6.
Ong RKC, Swindells K, Mansfield CS. Prospective determination of the specificity of a commercial snake venom detection kit in urine samples from dogs and cats. Aust Vet J. 2010;88:222–4.
Ong HM, Witham A, Kelers K, Boller M. Presumed secondary immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia following elapid snake envenomation and its treatment in four dogs. Aust Vet J. 2015;93:319–26.
Ong HM, Kelers K, Hughes D, Boller M. Outcome in cats with elapid snake envenomation associated neurotoxicity requiring mechanical ventilation: 12 cases (2005–2014). J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2016. Accepted for publication.
Padula AM, Winkel KD. Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration. Toxicon. 2016a;113:7–10.
Padula AM, Winkel KD. Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in the dog: diagnosis and treatment of nine cases. Toxicon. 2016b;117:69–75.
Padula AM, Winkel KD. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog. Toxicon. 2016c;114:59–64.
Pang D, Hethey J, Caulkett NA, Duke T. Partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 sampled via an intranasal catheter as a substitute for partial pressure of arterial CO2 in dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2007;17:143–8.
Pascoe R. Brown snake bite in horses in south-eastern Queensland. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1975;46:129–31.
Petejova N, Martinek A. Acute kidney injury due to rhabdomyolysis and renal replacement therapy: a critical review. Crit Care. 2014;18:224.
Premru V, Kovac J, Ponikvar R. Use of myoglobin as a marker and predictor in myoglobinuric acute kidney injury. Ther Apher Dial. 2013;17:391–5.
Preston SA, Davis CE, Harris JB. The assessment of muscle fibre loss after the injection of the venom of Notechis scutatus (Australian tiger snake). Toxicon. 1990;28:201–14.
Prittie J, Barton L. Route of nutrient delivery. Clin Techniq Small Animal Pract. 2004;19:6–8.
Riviere G, Choumet V, Audebert F, Sabouraud A, Debray M, Scherrmann JM, Bon C. Effect of antivenom on venom pharmacokinetics in experimentally envenomed rabbits: toward an optimization of antivenom therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;281:1–8.
Robertson I, Leggoe M, Dorling P, Shaw S, Clark W. A retrospective study of poisoning cases in dogs and cat: comparisons between a rural and an urban practice. Aust Vet J. 1992a;69:194–5.
Robertson ID, Dorling PR, Shaw SE. A prospective study of intoxications in dogs and cats in Western Australia. Aust Vet Pract. 1992b;22:78–85.
Ross L. Acute kidney injury in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2011;41:1–14.
Sharp NJ, Kornegay JN, Bartlett RJ, Hung WY, Dykstra MJ. Notexin-induced muscle injury in the dog. J Neurol Sci. 1993;116:73–81.
Shea GM. The distribution and identification of dangerously venomous Australian terrestrial snakes. Aust Vet J. 1999;77:791–8.
Steuten J, Winkel K, Carroll T, Williamson NA, Ignjatovic V, Fung K, Purcell AW, Fry BG. The molecular basis of cross-reactivity in the Australian Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK). Toxicon. 2007;50:1041–52.
Sutherland SK. Treatment of snakebite in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Aust Fam Physician. 1976;5:272–88.
Sutherland SK. Australian venoms, proceedings; 1987a. p. 103.
Sutherland SK. Australian venoms, Veterinary Clinical Toxicology. Post-graduate Committee in Veterinary Sience in association with Chapter of Veterinary Pharmacology, Australian College of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney; 1987b. p. 227–67.
Sutherland SK. Antivenom use in Australia. Premedication, adverse reactions and the use of venom detection kits. Med J Aust. 1992;157:734–9.
Sutherland SK, Best P. Snake envenomation, emergency medicine & critical care. Post-graduate Committee in Veterinary Science, University of Sydney; 1991. p. 167–76.
Sutherland SK, Leonard RL. Snakebite deaths in Australia 1992–1994 and a management update. Med J Aust. 1995;163:616–8.
Swindells KL, Russell NJ, Angles JM, Foster SF. Four cases of snake envenomation responsive to death adder antivenom. Aust Vet J. 2006;84:22–9.
Tibballs J. Cardiovascular, coagulation and haematological effects of Brown Snake and Tiger Snake venoms, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences. University of Melbourne; 1998.
Tibballs J, Sutherland SK, Kerr S. Studies on Australian snake venoms, Part II: the haematological effects of brown snake (Pseudonaja) species in the dog. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1991;19:338–42.
Trigg N, McAlees T. Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechius porphyriacus) envenomation in a dog. Aust Vet Practitioner. 2015;45:32–5.
Trigg N, Leister E, Whitney J, McAlees T. Outcomes of mechanical ventilation in 302 dogs and cats in Australia (2005–2013). Aust Vet Practitioner. 2014;44:698–703.
Valentine BA, Blue JT, Shelley SM, Cooper BJ. Increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity associated with muscle necrosis in the dog. J vet Inter Med Am College Vet Inter Med. 1990;4:140–3.
Webster RA, Mills PC, Morton JM. Indications, durations and outcomes of mechanical ventilation in dogs and cats with tick paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus: 61 cases (2008–2011). Aust Vet J. 2013;91:233–9.
White J. Envenoming and antivenom use in Australia. Toxicon. 1998;36:1483–92.
White J. Snake venoms and coagulopathy. Toxicon. 2005;45:951–67.
Wiener S. Active immunization of man against the venom of the Australian tiger snake (Notechis scutatus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1960;9:284–92.
Witsil AJ, Wells RJ, Woods C, Rao S. 272 cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dogs: demographics and treatment including safety of F(ab′)2 antivenom use in 236 patients. Toxicon. 2015;105:19–26.
Woods C, Young D. Clinical safety evaluation of F(ab′)(2) antivenom (Crotalus durissus-Bothrops asper) administration in dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2011;21:565–9.
Zutt R, van der Kooi AJ, Linthorst GE, Wanders RJ, de Visser M. Rhabdomyolysis: review of the literature. Neuromuscul Disord. 2014;24:651–9.