Envenomations Caused by Aquatic Animals in Europe and South America

  • Vidal HaddadJr.
Reference work entry
Part of the Toxinology book series (TOXI)


The contact between humanity and coastal areas has increased in recent decades and thus also increased injuries by aquatic animals. In South America continent, which is bathed by the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, there are injuries and envenomations caused by various aquatic animals. The animals that cause envenomations in Europe are similar to those that cause in the Western Atlantic in the American coast. Furthermore, the freshwater Basins in South America is very wide and have a unique fauna also associated with a series of injuries and envenomations. The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese man-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians), and venomous fish. In this chapter, we discuss the clinical manifestations caused by marine and freshwater animals of Europe and South America and emphasize therapeutic and preventive aspects of injuries.


Venomous animals Marine animals Echinoderms Cnidarians Venomous fish 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Botucatu Medical School – São Paulo State UniversityUniversidade Estadual PaulistaBotucatuBrazil

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