Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis and Systems Biology-Oriented Biomarker Discovery

  • Erik W. Baars
  • Andreas F. M. Nierop
  • Huub F. J. Savelkoul
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series

Abstract

There is an increasing interest in science and medicine in the systems approach. Instead of the reductionist approach that focuses on the physical and chemical properties of the individual components, systems biology aims to describe, understand, and explain from the complex biological systems that are studied: all levels of structural and functional complexity, explicitly including the supracellular domain; their systems behavior or phenotypes; their networks with relationships that interact with the genome, the environment, and the phenotype; and their multifactorial processes involved in maintaining homeostasis and the breakdown of homeostasis within the system. This shift from a more reductionist to a more holistic approach on both the epistemological (theoretical) and the methodological level is also important for the conceptualization and the development of biomarkers.

Based on the dataset of a randomized controlled trial on the effects of a treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, using five different methods of permuted stepwise regression, three systems biology-oriented immunological pattern variables (biomarkers) were developed that demonstrated larger CV correct values than the separate cytokines with regard to the classification of cytokine samples in baseline (before treatment) and post-baseline (after treatment).

This example demonstrates that a systems biological approach in both the conceptualization and development of biomarkers is promising. However, more empirical studies with larger datasets are necessary to confirm the positive results of the presented study.

Keywords

Biomarkers Cytokines Systems biology Permuted stepwise regression Seasonal allergic rhinitis 

List of Abbreviations

A2M

Alpha-2-Macroglobulin

C

Celsius

CD4

Cluster of Differentiation 4

ConeLasso

A Rescaled Version of Lasso

CV Correct

Cross-Validated Correct Rate of Classification

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

IFN-γ

Interferon Gamma

IG

Immunoglobulin

IL

Interleukin

Lasso

Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator

mL

Milliliters

NL

The Netherlands

OMP

Orthogonal Matching Pursuit

PBMC

Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Fraction

Phl p 1

Phleum Pretense

PStR

Permuted Stepwise Regression

R2

R Squared

RAST

Radioallergosorbent Testing

RNA

Ribonucleic Acid

SAR

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

StepwiseForwardP

Forward Stepwise Selection

StepwiseP

Stepwise Selection

TGF-β

Transforming Growth Factor Beta

Th Cells

T-Helper Cells

TNF-α

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha

Treg Cells

Regulatory T Cells

μg

Microgram

Notes

Acknowledgments

Parts of the text of this article concerning the development of the systems biological biomarkers are previously published in Baars et al. (2012).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik W. Baars
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andreas F. M. Nierop
    • 3
  • Huub F. J. Savelkoul
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Applied Sciences LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Louis Bolk InstituteDriebergenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.MuvaraLeiderdorpThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Cell Biology and Immunology GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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