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Differentiation Biomarkers of Osteoarthritis Determined by Glycoblotting

  • Shin-Ichiro Nishimura
  • Takeshi Ishihara
  • Norimasa Iwasaki
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)

Abstract

Drastic structural alteration of the cell surface glycans during cell differentiation can provide clinically potential biomarkers. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of the importance of the posttranslational protein glycosylations in various biological systems. However, we still do not fully understand the significance and mechanism of the glycoform changes during cellular proliferation and/or malignant alterations detected widely in many human diseases progress due to the difficulty of the structural analysis of highly complicated glycan structures. Moreover, the general and conventional procedures for the glycan analysis need extremely tedious and time-consuming multiple processes to enrich whole glycans directly from heterogeneous biological samples such as blood, body fluids, cultured cells, tissue/organ, and so on. As a result, the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of the dynamic disease-specific alterations in the posttranslational glycosylations has not been well exploited with a few notable exceptions. This chapter describes the advantage of the use of a key technology for the glycan-specific enrichment protocol, namely a “glycoblotting method,” in the discovery research of new class of human osteoarthritis cartilage-related biomarkers indicating the initiation of chondrocyte cell differentiation in the early stage of the cartilage degradation.

Keywords

Glycomics Glycoblotting method Glycoform-focused reverse proteomics and genomics Cell surface glycoproteins Osteoarthritis Chondrocyte differentiation Cartilage degradation 

List of Abbreviations

AQP1

Aquaporin-1

BOA

Benzyloxyamine

CHO

Chinese hamster ovary

ConA

Concanavalin A

DMB

1,2-diamino-4,5-methylene-dioxy-benzene

ENPP1

Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1

ESCs

Embryonic stem cells

iPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells

MALDI

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization

MS

Mass spectrometry

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

OA

Osteoarthritis

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PNGase F

Peptide N-glycosidase F

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Field of Drug Discovery Research, Faculty of Advanced Life ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Shionogi Pharmaceutical Research CenterShionogi & Co. Ltd., ToyonakaOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryHokkaido University School of Medicine, Kita-kuSapporoJapan

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