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Bone Biomarkers Related to Osteoarthritis

  • M. P. Engbersen
  • Z. Huang
  • V. B. Kraus
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)

Abstract

It is evident that the bone plays a vital role in osteoarthritis (OA) disease pathogenesis, progression, and symptomatology. The close interaction of the bone and cartilage in the pathogenesis of OA and the knowledge that OA is a disease of the whole joint provide a strong rationale for investigating bone biomarker changes in OA. The evaluation of bone biomarkers is important for gaining a greater understanding of the role of bone pathology in OA and a means for developing new diagnostic and prognostic tools for therapeutic developments and early OA intervention. Although comparisons among studies are difficult because different assays and assay parameters are used and different assays reflect different outcomes, many bone-related biomarkers have shown great promise as diagnostic, prognostic, and efficacy of intervention biomarkers for OA. These include the traditional bone biomarkers, CTX-I and NTX-I and osteocalcin. The strong association of these traditional bone biomarkers with urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) from the articular cartilage confirms the strong association of bone resorption with cartilage degradation. To date, results using bone biomarkers in OA trials provide examples of the modifiability of the whole joint organ by bone-acting agents. Based on recent data, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), periostin, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) show great promise and can be considered new OA-related bone biomarkers. More studies are required in the context of treatment trials to determine which bone biomarkers will be most relevant for drug development and use in the clinic.

Keywords

Osteoarthritis Bone Biomarkers Resorption Formation Turnover Collagen Subchondral Articular 

List of Abbreviations

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

BIPEDS

Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy of intervention, Diagnostic or Safety biomarkers

BMD

Bone mineral density

BML

Bone marrow lesion

BSP

Bone sialoprotein

CT

Computed tomography

CTX and CTX-I

C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen

CTX-II

C-telopeptide of type II collagen

DKK-1

Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1

DMOADs

Disease-modifying OA drugs

Dpd

Deoxypyridinoline (also called lysyl-pyridinoline or LP)

ECLIA

Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ET-1

Endothelin-1

HYL-Pyr

Hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline (also called pyridinoline or HP)

ICTP

Carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen

IL-6

Interleukin-6

JSN

Joint space narrowing

KL-score

Kellgren and Lawrence grade (of radiographic severity of OA)

KOOS

Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteinases

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NTX and NTX-I

N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen

OA

Osteoarthritis

OC

Osteocalcin (intact protein indicative of bone formation; fragments of OA indicative of bone resorption)

OFELY

“Os des Femmes de Lyon,” a longitudinal cohort study for assessing osteoporosis and secondary OA

PICP

Procollagen type I C-terminal propeptide

PINP

Procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide

PIIANP

N-propeptide of type IIA procollagen

POSTN

Periostin

S

Serum

SF

Synovial fluid

TRACP5b

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b

WNT

Wingless-related integration site

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of RheumatologyDuke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of MedicineDurhamUSA

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