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Chitinases as Biomarkers in Bone Studies

  • Michelino Di Rosa
  • Lucia Malaguarnera
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)

Abstract

Despite the hardness and strength characteristic, the bone is not a static tissue, but is constantly changing and constantly repairing. This process is called bone remodeling. In this cyclical process, the oldest bone tissue is removed and replaced with another new tissue. There are two types of cells responsible for the bone turnover: osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The different phases of bone remodeling are controlled by numerous local and systemic factors. The alteration of balance between these factors can lead to different types of bone disorders. In the recent years, the bone turnover markers underwent extensive development. Pathological bone resorption is a cause of significant morbidity in diseases affecting the skeleton, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, periodontitis, and cancer metastasis. Biochemical monitoring of bone metabolism depends upon the measurement of enzymes and proteins released during bone formation and of degradation products formed during bone resorption. The mammalian chitinases can be considered new bone resorption markers. These molecules belong to the families 18 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) superfamily. Although, these enzymes have been widely implicated in a variety of diseases involving immune dysfunction, their biologic role in bone resorption is poorly understood.

Herein we will focus on what is known in the role chitinase family in bone disease development, as well as the potential of some of the engaged molecules as prognostic or diagnostic markers and their perspective in developing new therapeutic strategies against bone disease.

Keywords

Bone disease CHIT1 CHI3L1 Osteoclasts Osteoblasts Macrophages Monocytes 

List of Abbreviations

BSP

Bone sialoprotein

Ca

Calcium

CBM18

Carbohydrate-binding module family 18

CCL2

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2

CHI3L1

Chitinase 3 like 1

CHI3L2

Chitinase 3 like 2

CHIA

Chitinase, acidic

CHID1

Chitinase domain containing 1

CHIT1

Chitotriosidase

CLPs

Chitinase-like-proteins

CPhoDs

Calcium phosphate thin film disks

CTX and NTX

C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen and cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen

CXCL2

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2

DDs

Dentin disks

GH

Glycosyl hydrolase

GlcNAc

β-1,4-linked N-acetyl-d-glucosamine

GMCSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

IL-6

Interleukin 6

MMP9

Matrix metallopeptidase 9

MØs

Macrophages

OA

Osteoarthritis

OC

Osteoclast

OVGP1

Oviductin

P

Phosphate

P1CP and P1NP

C- and N-terminal pro-peptides of procollagen type 1

PDB

Protein data bank

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

RANKL

Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand

siRNA

Small interfering RNA

Th1

Lymphocyte T helper 1

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TRAP

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological ScienceUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly

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