Spin-Resolved Valence Photoemission

  • Elaine A. Seddon
Reference work entry


Spin-resolved valence photoemission has recently seen a resurgence of interest fostered by exciting results in a range of interesting materials. Reviewed here are the basics of, the instrumentation for, and techniques useful in spin-resolved photoemission, together with illustrative examples of its utilization for materials of general importance and of particular relevance to spintronics applications. The example materials are broadly classified into nonmagnetic and magnetic systems. The former covers Rashba systems and topological insulators. The latter includes thin films, half-metals, adsorbates and induced moments, and, finally, a short section on imaging. The review is not intended to be comprehensive in its coverage but rather to provide an introduction to hardware and techniques together with an overview of selected results and state-of-the-art developments.


Spin Polarization Topological Insulator Majority Spin Dirac Cone Minority Spin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations


One dimensional


Two dimensional


Two-photon photoemission


Three-body scattering


Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy


Bulk conduction band


Body-centered cubic


Bulk-induced spinterface state


Bulk valence band


Brillouin zone


Density functional theory


Density of states


Fermi energy




Figure of merit


Fermi surface


Hemispherical analyzer




High harmonic generation


Hybrid interface state


Highest occupied molecular orbital


Lower Dirac cone


Low-energy electron diffraction


Multichannel plate


Momentum distribution curve








Organic semiconductor


Photoelectron emission microscope


Quintuple layer


Room temperature


Surface Brillouin zone


Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis


Surface-induced spintronic state




Spin-polarized low-energy electron diffraction


Spin-resolved two-photon photoemission


Spin-resolved and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy


Spin-resolved photoemission


Spin-resolved photoelectron emission microscope


Spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy


Spin-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy


Surface state


Topological insulator






Topological surface state


Upper Dirac cone




X-ray magnetic circular dichroism



It is with great pleasure that I acknowledge the assistance provided by Tim Gay, Moritz Hoesch, Vladimir Petrov, Hugo Dil, Karol Hricovini, Jean-Michel Mariot, Peter Weightman, Paul Durham, and Yves Acremann, all of whom read the manuscript and provided many helpful suggestions. My thanks also go to Sihui Wang, Yonghao Gao, and Xiao Collins for their help with the manuscript. In addition I am indebted to Prof Wendy Flavell for many fruitful discussions, to members of the vacuum group and my family for their patient support in the light of numerous delays, and to The University of Manchester, the Cockcroft Institute, and STFC for their continued support.


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Further Reading

  1. Bennemann KH (2004) Ultrafast dynamics in solids. J Phys Condens Matter 16:R995ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dediu VA, Hueso LE, Bergenti I, Taliani C (2009) Spin routes in organic semiconductors. Nat Mat 8:707; corrigendum Dediu VA, Hueso LE, Bergenti I, Taliani C (2009) Nat Mat 8:850Google Scholar
  3. Dil JH (2009) Spin and angle resolved photoemission on non-magnetic low-dimensional systems. J Phys Condens Matter 21:403001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Johnson PD (1997) Spin-polarized photoemission. Rep Prog Phys 60:1217ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Johnson PD, G€untherodt G (2007) Spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of magnetic systems. In: Kronm€uller H, Parkin S (eds) The handbook of magnetism and advanced materials, vol 3. Wiley, Hoboken, p 1635.Google Scholar
  6. Kessler J (1985) Polarised electrons, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Okuda T, Kimura A (2013) Spin- and angle-resolved photoemission of strongly spin-orbit coupled systems. J Phys Soc Jpn 82:021002ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Osterwalder J (2006) Spin-polarized photoemission. Lect Notes Phys 697:95ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine A. Seddon
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.The Photon Science InstituteThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.The Cockcroft InstituteSci-Tech DaresburyDaresburyUK

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