Regulation of Pancreatic Islet Formation

  • Manuel Carrasco
  • Anabel Rojas
  • Irene Delgado
  • Nadia Cobo Vuilleumier
  • Juan R. Tejedo
  • Francisco J. Bedoya
  • Benoit R. Gauthier
  • Bernat Soria
  • Franz Martín
Reference work entry

Abstract

Pancreatic islets are complex structures formed by five different hormone-expressing cells surrounded by endothelial cells, nerves, and fibroblasts. Dysfunction of insulin-producing cells (β-cells) causes diabetes. Generation of β-like cells that can compensate the loss of β-cell mass in type 1 diabetes or defects in β-cell insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes is a current challenge in biomedicine. The knowledge of the molecular basis governing pancreas development and islet formation will help us to generate in vitro or in vivo β-like cells to treat diabetes. Pancreas development is a highly complicated process, which is regulated by signaling pathways, transcription factors, nutrients, and other environmental factors. Collectively, these signals and factors act coordinated, in a spatial and temporal manner, throughout the embryonic pancreas. In this review we will summarize the main steps in pancreas development and will highlight the key transcription factors that have been shown to play essential roles in pancreas specification, maintenance of multipotent pancreatic progenitors, endocrine differentiation, and islet maturation. We will also discuss the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating islet cell fate.

Keywords

Endocrine progenitor cells Transcription factors Signaling pathways Development Differentiation Gene regulatory networks 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank members of the Stem Cell and Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Departments from CABIMER for stimulating discussions on diabetes cell therapy and pancreas development. A. R. is supported by a grant from ISCIII co-funded by Fondos FEDER (PI11/01125). M. C. is supported by a predoctoral fellowship from Spanish Ministry of Education. I. D. is supported by a contract from Consejería de Salud (Junta de Andalucía, PI00-0008 to A. R.). B. R. G. is supported by grants from the Consejeria de Salud, Fundacion Publica Andaluza Progreso y Salud, Junta de Andalucia (PI-0727-2010), Instituto de Salud Carlos III co-funded by Fondos FEDER (PI10/00871) and by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (17-2013-372). FM is supported by grants from Junta de Andalucía (BIO-311). We apologize to colleagues whose work could not be cited because of space constraints.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel Carrasco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anabel Rojas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Irene Delgado
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nadia Cobo Vuilleumier
    • 2
  • Juan R. Tejedo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francisco J. Bedoya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Benoit R. Gauthier
    • 2
  • Bernat Soria
    • 1
    • 2
  • Franz Martín
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CIBERDEMBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Andalusian Center of Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER)SevilleSpain

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