Encyclopedia of Marine Geosciences

Living Edition
| Editors: Jan Harff, Martin Meschede, Sven Petersen, Jörn Thiede

Co-Rich Manganese Crusts

  • James R. Hein
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6644-0_25-3



Layered manganese oxide and iron oxyhydroxide (ferromanganese) deposits formed from direct and very slow precipitation of minerals from seawater onto hard substrates; crusts contain minor but significant concentrations of cobalt, titanium, nickel, platinum, molybdenum, tellurium, zirconium, and other metallic and rare-earth elements sorbed from seawater by the particulate manganese and iron minerals.


The existence of iron (Fe)–manganese (Mn) crusts (Fig. 1) has been known for more than a century; however, during early explorations, crusts were not distinguished from manganese nodules. It was not until the early 1980s that a research cruise was dedicated to the investigation of Fe–Mn crusts and their resource potential for cobalt (Halbach et al., 1982). From then until the end of the twentieth century,...


Global Ocean Manganese Nodule Ferromanganese Crust Manganese Crust Layered Manganese Oxide 
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  1. Frank, M., O'Nions, R. K., Hein, J. R., and Banakar, V. K., 1999. 60 Myr records of major elements and Pb-Nd isotopes from hydrogenous ferromanganese crusts: reconstruction of seawater paleochemistry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 1689–1708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Coastal & Marine Science CenterU.S. Geological SurveySanta CruzUSA