Encyclopedia of Marine Geosciences

Living Edition
| Editors: Jan Harff, Martin Meschede, Sven Petersen, Jörn Thiede

The Geologic Time Scale: Marine Geosciences

  • F. M. Gradstein
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6644-0_199-1

Introduction

The geologic time scale (GTS) is the principal tool for deciphering and understanding the long and complex history of our planet, Earth. As Arthur Holmes, the father of the geologic time scale, once wrote (Holmes, 1965, p. 148): “To place all the scattered pages of earth history in their proper chronological order is by no means an easy task.” Ordering these scattered and torn pages and understanding the physical, chemical, and biological processes that acted on them since Earth appeared and solidified require a detailed and accurate time scale.

This calibration to linear time of the succession of events recorded in the rocks on Earth has three components (Fig. 1):

Keywords

Radiogenic Isotope Scalable Vector Graphic Rock Record Ammonite Zone Stage Boundary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Agterberg, F. P., Hammer, O., and Gradstein, F. M., 2012. Statistical procedures. In Gradstein, R., et al. (eds.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cooper, R. A., and Sadler, P. M., 2012. The Ordovician period. In Gradstein, R. M., et al. (eds.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 489–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davydov, V. I., Korn, D., and Schmitz, M. D., 2012. The Carboniferous period. In Gradstein, R. M., et al. (eds.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 603–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gradstein, F. M., and Ogg, J. G., 1996. A Phanerozoic time scale. Episodes, 19, 3–5. with insert.Google Scholar
  5. Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., Smith, A. G., Agterberg, F. P., Bleeker, W., Cooper, R. A., Davydov, V., Gibbard, P., Hinnov, L. A., House, M. R., Lourens, L., Luterbacher, H.-P., McArthur, J., Melchin, M. J., Robb, L. J., Shergold, J., Villeneuve, M., Wardlaw, B. R., Ali, J., Brinkhuis, H., Hilgen, F. J., Hooker, J., Howarth, R. J., Knoll, A. H., Laskar, J., Monechi, S., Powell, J., Plumb, K.A., Raffi, I., Röhl, U., Sanfilippo, A., Schmitz, B., Shackleton, N. J., Shields, G. A., Strauss, H., Van Dam, J., Veizer, J., van Kolfschoten, T. H., and Wilson, D., 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge University Press, 589 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Gradstein, F. M, Ogg, J. G., Schmitz, M. D., Ogg, G. M., Agterberg, F. P., Anthonissen, D. E., Becker, T. R., Catt, J. A., Cooper, R. A., Davydov, V. I., Gradstein, S. R., Henderson, C. M., Hilgen, F. J., Hinnov, L. A., McArthur, J. M., Melchin, M. J., Narbonne, G. M., Paytan, A., Peng, S., Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B., Pillans, B., Saltzman, M. R., Simmons, M. D., Shields, G. A., Tanaka, K. L.,Vandenberghe, N., Van Kranendonk, M. J., Zalasiewicz, J., Altermann, W., Babcock, L. E., Beard, B. L., Beu, A. G., Boyes, A. F., Cramer, B. D., Crutzen, P. J., van Dam, J. A., Gehling, J. G., Gibbard, P. L., Gray, E. T., Hammer, O., Hartmann, W. K., Hill, A. C., Paul F. Hoffman, P. F., Hollis, C. J., Hooker, J. J., Howarth, R. J., Huang, C., Johnson, C. M., Kasting, J. F., Kerp, H., Korn, D., Krijgsman, W., Lourens, L. J., MacGabhann, B. A., Maslin, M. A., Melezhik, V. A., Nutman, A. P., Papineau, D., Piller, W. E., Pirajno, F., Ravizza, G. E., Sadler, P. M., Speijer, R. P., Steffen, W., Thomas, E., Wardlaw, B. R., Wilson, D. S., and Xiao, S., 2012. The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Boston: Elsevier, 1129 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Harland, W. B., Cox, A. V., Llewellyn, P. G., Pickton, C. A. G., Smith, A. G., and Walters, R., 1982. A Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 131 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Harland, W. B., Armstrong, R. L., Cox, A. V., Craig, L. A., Smith, A. G., and Smith, D. G., 1990, A Geologic Time Scale 1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 263 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Hilgen, F. J., Lourens, L. J., and VanDam, J. A., 2012. The Neogene Period. In Gradstein, R. M., et al. (eds.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 923–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Holmes, A., 1960. A revised geological time-scale. Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society, 17, 183–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology. London: Nelson Printers, 1288 p.Google Scholar
  12. Kuiper, K. F., Deino, A., Hilgen, F. J., Krijgsman, W., Renne, P. R., and Wijbrans, J. R., 2008. Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth history. Science, 320(5875), 500–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Narbonne, G., Xiao, S., and Shields, G. A., 2012. The Ediacaran period. In Gradstein, R. M. (ed.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 413–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ogg, J. G., Ogg, G., and Gradstein, F. M., 2008. The Concise Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 177 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Ogg, J. G., and Hinnov, L. A., 2012. The cretaceous period. In Gradstein, R. M., et al. (eds.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 793–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schmitz, M. D., 2012. Radiogenic isotopes geochronology. In Gradstein, R. M. (ed.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 115–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vanden Berghe, N., Hilgen, F. J., and Speijer, R. P., 2012. The Paleogene Period. In Gradstein, R. M., et al. (eds.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 855–923.Google Scholar
  18. Van Kranendonk, M., 2012. A chronostratigraphic division of the Precambrian. In Gradstein, R. M., et al. (eds.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 299–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geology MuseumOslo UniversityOsloNorway