In geology, a marginal sea is the sea bordering continents, semi-isolated from open ocean by island arc or land ridge, and underlain by oceanic crust (Karig 1971). Thus a marginal sea is a deep-sea basin with water depth in general over ~3,000 m, while its slopes and shelves are called as its continental margins.
As a geographic and oceanographic term, a “marginal sea” represents a partially enclosed sea adjacent to or widely open to open ocean at the surface, but bounded by submarine ridges on the seafloor (Wikipedia). The presence of oceanic crust is not required.
As a geopolitical term, a marginal sea is equivalent to a territorial water, which is important in determining what maritime resources that a state can exploit (Wikipedia).
KeywordsOceanic Crust Open Ocean Seafloor Spreading Western Boundary Current Western Pacific Ocean
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