Encyclopedia of Marine Geosciences

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| Editors: Jan Harff, Martin Meschede, Sven Petersen, Jörn Thiede

Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes

  • William M. White
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6644-0_14-1

Definition

Hot Spot. Persistent volcanism over many millions or tens of millions of years at fixed location on the Earth’s surface in an absolute reference frame. This leads to a chain of volcanic islands and seamounts that get progressively older in the direction of lithospheric plate motion. The Hawaiian Islands provide the classic example.

Mantle Plume. Mantle plumes are relatively narrow columns of hot, buoyant rock rising from the deep mantle, probably the core–mantle boundary in many cases, and partially melting in the uppermost mantle. The magma produced in this way is responsible for hot spot volcanism and oceanic volcanic islands and seamounts.

Introduction

Wilson (1963) pointed out the existence of chains of volcanic islands in the Pacific whose alignment was nearly parallel and whose age increased with distance from the East Pacific Rise. He proposed that the volcanoes formed as convection currents in the shallow mantle dragged oceanic floor over a fixed melting region in...

Keywords

Mantle Plume Lower Mantle Mantle Convection Buoyancy Flux Oceanic Island Basalt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesCornell UniversityIthacaUSA