Snake Venom Proteopeptidomics: What Lies Behind the Curtain

  • Richard Hemmi Valente
  • Carolina Alves Nicolau
  • Jonas Perales
  • Ana Gisele da Costa Neves-Ferreira
Reference work entry
Part of the Toxinology book series (TOXI)


The study of snake venoms has led to the discovery/development of a number of pharmaceutical drugs, diagnostic kits, and research molecular tools in the last 50 years. Furthermore, a deep knowledge of snake venom protein composition is necessary for better understanding the envenomation physiopathology and to contribute to the broadening in the clinical efficacy and range of antivenom therapy. During the past 15 years, several groups have applied proteomic techniques for the determination (to different extents) of peptide and protein compositions of snake venoms from almost 200 species (mostly from Viperidae and Elapidae families). The present review details the different methodological approaches used so far, stressing that none of them has generated a comprehensive snake venom proteopeptidome, ideally defined as the quali-quantitative representation of all proteoforms (including different peptide forms) present in any given snake venom. Due to the technological advancements in high-throughput genomics and transcriptomics allied to state-of-the-art bottom-up proteomics (as well as the possibility of top-down venomics), it is proposed that the time has come to actively pursue the proteopeptidome “dream.” Several issues that should be addressed to achieve this goal are discussed. Finally, it is expected that in the next decade, snake venomics shall surpass the protein family-level-based identification and attain a proteoform-level-based one.


Snake Venom Venom Gland Snake Species Venom Component Proteotypic Peptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Hemmi Valente
    • 1
  • Carolina Alves Nicolau
    • 1
  • Jonas Perales
    • 1
  • Ana Gisele da Costa Neves-Ferreira
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de ToxinologiaInstituto Oswaldo Cruz / FIOCRUZRio de JaneiroBrazil

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