Encyclopedia of Scientific Dating Methods

2015 Edition
| Editors: W. Jack Rink, Jeroen W. Thompson

Amino Acid

  • John F. Wehmiller
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6304-3_122

Definition

An organic compound containing an amino group (NH2), a carboxylic acid group (COOH), and any of various side groups, having the basic formula NH2CHRCOOH.

Amino acids are organic compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen in a specific structure where a central carbon atom is surrounded by a carboxyl group, an amino group, and a side chain that may be a single hydrogen or a more complex chain with multiple carbon-bearing entities. The structure common to all amino acids is shown in Figure 1. Approximately 20 common amino acids are found in nature, and they combine in sequences of varying lengths to form peptides and proteins that have specific biochemical functions. Amino acids are found in a variety of geological samples and play a role in understanding chemical evolution, the formation and alteration of organic material in sediments, and geochronology (Goodfriend et al., 2000).
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Bibliography

  1. Goodfriend, G. A., Collins, M. J., Fogel, M. L., Macko, S. A., and Wehmiller, J. F. (eds.), 2000. Perspectives in Amino Acid and Protein Geochemistry. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. xvi + 366 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Hatte, C., Hodgins, G., Jull, A. J. T., Bishop, B., and Tesson, B., 2008. Marine chronology based on 14C dating on diatom proteins. Marine Chemistry, 109, 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Marom, A., McCullagh, J. S. O., Higham, T. F. G., Sinitsyn, A. A., and Hedges, R. E. M., 2012. Single amino acid radiocarbon dating of Upper Paleolithic modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 6878–6881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA