Encyclopedia of Migration

Living Edition
| Editors: Reed Ueda

Child Trafficking

  • Wendi Adelson
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6179-7_6-1



Child trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of a child for the purpose of labor or commercial sexual exploitation. Unlike the trafficking of adults, child trafficking can occur in the absence of threatened or actual force, coercion, or fraud.

Detailed Description

Child trafficking is “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation.” (United Nations protocol). When children are the victims, child trafficking has occurred whether or not “threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power or a position of vulnerability or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person,” the means that define trafficking in adults (United Nations protocol), were used (United Nations protocol).

According to UNICEF estimates,...


Human Trafficking Trafficking Victim Fair Trade Product Transnational Organize Crime Commercial Sexual Exploitation 
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  1. UNICEF (2005) Action to prevent child trafficking in Southeastern Europe, A preliminary assessment. Available at http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/Assessment_report_June_06.pdf. p. 36
  2. UNICEF (2006) Convention on the rights of the child. Web. 7 Jun 2012. Available at http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30229.html
  3. UNICEF (2012) Convention on the rights of the child, optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography. Available at http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30204.html
  4. UNICEF Reference guide on protecting the rights of child victims of trafficking in Europe, talks generally about all of these things except fair trade. Available at http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/UNICEF_Child_Trafficking34-43.pdf. p. 33
  5. United Nations protocol to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Organized Crime, general provisions, Article 3(c). Available at http://www.unicef.org/protection/convention_20traff_eng.pdf
  6. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs. Forced and bonded child labor. http://www.dol.gov/ILAB/media/reports/iclp/sweat2/bonded.htm#.UI3rW8Ue6So

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of LawFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA