Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology

Living Edition
| Editors: Bharat Bhushan

Interaction of the Immune System with Nanoparticles

  • Kirsten M. Pondman
  • Robert B. Sim
  • Uday Kishore
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6178-0_100971-1



In most applications of nanomedicine, nanoparticles will come into contact with the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, the bloodstream, or other tissues in the body. Therefore, the nanoparticles will interact with the immune system. Interactions range from opsonization by immune or nonimmune proteins, uptake by phagocytic cells, and likely generation of antibodies. These immune processes can cause adverse inflammatory conditions and affect the intended target and delivery of the drugs by nanoparticles. Nanotherapeutics can also be strategically designed to interact with specific components of the immune system, either to stimulate or suppress the immune responses. These properties are useful for prophylactic vaccination and treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.


Due to their advantageous physicochemical properties and increased targeting specificity, nanoparticle-based drugs can be effective at lower dose, with...


Complement Activation Complement System Iron Oxide Nanoparticles NLRP3 Inflammasome Classical Pathway 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirsten M. Pondman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert B. Sim
    • 3
    • 4
  • Uday Kishore
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Infection, Immunity and Disease Mechanisms, College of Health and Life SciencesBrunel University LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Neuro Imaging, MIRA InstituteUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  4. 4.Department of Infection, Immunity and InflammationUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK