Skip to main content

Managing Wetlands for Pollination

The Wetland Book


Pollination is a fundamental process in plant biology whereby pollen is transferred from the anther (male part) to the stigma (female part) to facilitate fertilization and reproduction. Pollination is restricted to the flower bearing plants or angiosperms. Pollination can be mediated by abiotic and biotic factors. Approximately 87 % of all flowering plants are pollinated by biotic vectors such as insects, birds, and mammals (Regan et al. 2015). The primary abiotic factor is pollination by the wind (known as anemophily). This form of pollination is common in many wetland grass species, numerous coniferous, and many deciduous trees. Some wetland and aquatic plants release and disperse their pollen directly into water and this becomes the vector for pollination, known as hydrophilous pollination (Cox 1988).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Cox PA. Hydrophilous pollination. Annu Rev Ecol Syst. 1988;19:261–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Du ZY, Wang QF. Correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e115653.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Fiedler AK, Landis DA, Arduser M. Rapid shift in pollinator communities following invasive species removal. Restor Ecol. 2012;20(5):593–602.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gallai N, Salles JM, Settele J, Vaissière BE. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecol Econ. 2009;68(3):810–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kremen C, Ostfeld RS. A call to ecologists: measuring, analyzing, and managing ecosystem services. Front Ecol Environ. 2005;3(10):540–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Regan EC, Santini L, Ingwall-King L, Hoffmann M, Rondinini C, Symes A, Taylor J, Butchart SH. Global trends in the status of bird and mammal pollinators. Conserv Lett. 2015. doi:10.1111/conl.12162.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raju AS, Jonathan KH, Lakshmi AV. Pollination biology of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou (Rhizophoraceae), an important true viviparous mangrove tree species. Curr Sci. 2006;91(9):1235.

    Google Scholar 

  • van Swaay C, Warren M, Loïs G. Biotope use and trends of European butterflies. J Insect Conserv. 2006;10(2):189–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whelan CJ, Wenny DG, Marquis RJ. Ecosystem services provided by birds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1134(1):25–60.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robert J. McInnes .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this entry

Cite this entry

McInnes, R.J. (2016). Managing Wetlands for Pollination. In: Finlayson, C., et al. The Wetland Book. Springer, Dordrecht.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-007-6172-8

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference Biomedicine and Life SciencesReference Module Biomedical and Life Sciences

Publish with us

Policies and ethics

Chapter history

  1. Latest

    Managing Wetlands for Pollination
    05 January 2017


  2. Original

    Managing Wetlands for Pollination
    18 August 2016