Herbicide-resistant (HR) crops have been genetically modified (GM) so that they are not damaged by applications of certain herbicides. Because herbicides are designed to kill plants, they can cause injury to conventional crop varieties. This limits when and how herbicides can be applied, making them less effective. Because many herbicides are effective against only certain types of plants, growers face the complexity of choosing among several chemicals for different weeds. Crops resistant to broad-spectrum herbicides overcome these problems by reducing crop injury and allowing applications of a single herbicide for most (or all) chemical weed control (NRC 2010). Mechanical and hand tillage to control weeds has become more costly as labor and fuel costs have risen relative to herbicide costs (Osteen and Fernandez-Cornejo 2013). There are additional environmental problems with tillage,...
KeywordsCrop Variety Conservation Tillage Phosphinic Acid Expert Survey Glyphosate Resistance
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