Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

Living Edition
| Editors: David M. Kaplan

Ready-to-Use Foods (RUFs)

  • Lisa F. Clark
  • Jill E. Hobbs
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6167-4_558-1



Ready-to-use food products (RUFs) are used to address malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies as part of international food assistance strategies. RUFs are any foods that are formulated to be eaten out of the package without cooking, adding water, or any other type of preparation. They are part of international food assistance strategies that usually involve UN (United Nation) agencies like the World Food Programme and UNICEF. They are used in emergency humanitarian situations and have more recently been used to fill the nutritional gap in situations where individuals are not able to secure appropriate, nutrient-rich foods in their everyday diets. RUFs are also used to prevent the negative health consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in children, which include stunting and wasting. This article explains how RUFs are used in international food assistance...


Corporate Social Responsibility Supply Chain Food Security Millennium Development Goal Micronutrient Deficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Arimond, M., Zeilani, M., Jungjohann, S., Brown, K. H., Ashorn, P., Allen, L. H., & Dewey, K. G. (2015). Considerations in developing lipid-based nutrient supplements for prevention of under nutrition: Experience from the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) project. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 11(Suppl 4), 31–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakhsh, U. R. (2012). The plumpy’Nut predicament: Is compulsory licensing a solution? Chicago-Kent Journal of Intellectual Property, 11(2), 238–259.Google Scholar
  3. Byiers, B., & Seravesi, S. (2013). The enriching business of nutrition: Market-based partnerships and regional approaches to nutrition: What role for CAADP? ECDPM discussion paper No. 149. Maastricht: European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM). http://ecdpm.org/publications/market-based-partnerships-regional-approaches-nutrition-role-caadp/. Accessed 3 Feb 2016.
  4. Clark, L. F., & Hobbs, J. E. (2015). Innovations in food assistance strategies and therapeutic food supply chains. In A. Schmitz, P. L. Kennedy, and T. G Schmitz (Eds.), Food security in an uncertain world (Frontiers of Economics and Globalization, volume 15) (pp. 111–128). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  5. Garg, T., Barrett, C. B., Gomez, M. I., Lentz, E. C., & Violette, W. J. (2013). Market prices and food aid local and regional procurement and distribution: A multi-country analysis. World Development, 49, 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guimón, J., & Guimón, P. (2010). Innovation to fight hunger: The case of plumpy’Nut. UAM-accenture working papers, faculty of economics, Autonomous University of Madrid. http://www.uam.es/docencia/degin/catedra/documentos/1_guimon_guimon.pdf. Accessed 3 Feb 2016.
  7. Harou, A. P., Upton, J. B., Lentz, E. C., Barrett, C. B., & Gómez, M. I. (2013). Tradeoff s or synergies?: Assessing local and regional food aid procurement through case studies in Burkina Faso and Guatemala. World Development, 49, 44–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Herforth, A. (2015). Access to adequate nutritious food: New indicators to track progress and inform action. In D. Sahn (Ed.), The fight against hunger and malnutrition: The role of food, agriculture, and targeted policies (pp. 140–158). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hobbs, J. E. (2007). The rocky path of transition: Institutions and transaction costs in the Russian economy. In J. D. Gaisford, V. Mayevsky, & W. A. Kerr (Eds.), Revitalizing Russian industry: The road ahead after fifteen years of transition (pp. 39–55). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Kerr, W. A. (2016). The WTO and food aid: Food security and surplus disposal in the 2015 ministerial decision on export competition. Estey Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, 17(1), 1.Google Scholar
  11. Lentz, E. C., Barrett, C. B., Gómez, M. I., & Maxwell, D. G. (2013). On the choice and impacts of international food assistance instruments. World Development, 49, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lybbert, T. J. (2011). Hybrid public-private delivery of preventative lipid-based nutrient supplement products: Key challenges, opportunities, and players in an emerging product space. United Nations System: Standing Committee on Nutrition. SCN News, 39, 32–39. http://www.cmamforum.org/Pool/Resources/Hybrid-public-private-delivery-LNS-2011.pdf. Accessed 3 Feb 2016.Google Scholar
  13. Nutriset. (2016). Mission and vision of the PlumpyField network. http://www.nutriset.fr/en/plumpyfield/plumpyfield-mission-and-vision.html. Accessed 3 Feb 2016.
  14. UNICEF. (2013). Ready-to-use therapeutic food for children with severe acute malnutrition. Position Paper No. 1. UNICEF, June. http://www.unicef.org/media/files/Position_Paper_Ready-to-use_therapeutic_food_for_children_with_severe_acute_malnutrition__June_2013.pdf. Accessed 3 Feb 2016.
  15. United Nations (UN). (2015). Zero hunger and the sustainable development goals. http://www.un.org/en/zerohunger/challenge.shtml#collapseZero. Accessed 3 Feb 2016.
  16. USGAO. (2009). International food assistance: Local and regional procurement can enhance the efficiency of US food aid, but challenges may constrain its implementation. GAO-09-570. US Government Accountability Office. http://www.gao.gov/products/A86264. Accessed 3 Feb 2016.
  17. Violette, W. J., Harou, A. P., Upton, J. B., Bell, S. D., Barrett, C. B., Gómez, M. I., & Lentz, E. C. (2013). Recipients’ satisfaction with locally procured food aid rations: Comparative evidence from a three country matched survey. World Development, 49, 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College of Agriculture and BioresourcesUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College of Agriculture and BioresourcesUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada