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Gene pharming; Molecular farming; Pharming


Biopharming is the production and use of transgenic plants and animals genetically engineered to produce pharmaceutical substances for use in humans or animals. It often involves the insertion of gene constructs derived from humans. Biopharming exists on a spectrum of activity and is not clearly demarcated from its nearest neighbors. For example, genetically modified yeast, bacteria, and animal cell cultures have for some time been used to produce pharmaceutical substances in enclosed bioreactor systems, but are generally not included in the definition of biopharming. On the other hand, plant cell cultures, a newer development but also involving enclosed bioreactors, are typically included together with whole-plant methods in plant biopharming. While animals are also being genetically modified to alter their nutritional composition, to make them better models for human disease, and to provide more compatible organs for...


  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  • Plant Cell Culture
  • Zoonotic Disease
  • Animal Cell Culture
  • Animal Trial

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Correspondence to Joanna Goven .

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Goven, J. (2014). Biopharming. In: Thompson, P., Kaplan, D. (eds) Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. Springer, Dordrecht.

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