Encyclopedia of Science Education

Living Edition
| Editors: Richard Gunstone

Learning Environment Instruments

  • David Zandvliet
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6165-0_200-2


Classroom environment; Student perceptions

Research and evaluation within the context of science education traditionally relies on assessment of academic achievement and other valued learning outcomes. However, these educational measures do not give a complete view of students’ educational experience. In particular, students’ perceptions of their school experience are also significant. Researchers have made considerable progress over the past 40 years in both conceptualizing and assessing determinants of the psychosocial learning environment in classrooms and schools (see Fraser 2012). This has in turn led to development and validation of a variety of robust instruments that measure the learning environment in a range of contexts. Early learning environment instruments include the Learning Environment Inventory (LEI) developed by Herbert Walberg (1979) and the Classroom Environment Scale developed by Rudolf Moos (1979).

Using students’ perceptions to describe educational...


Classroom Environment Classroom Learn Environment Constructivist Learn Environment Survey Learn Environment Research Science Laboratory Environment Inventory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Fraser BJ (2012) Classroom learning environments: retrospect, context and prospect. In: Fraser BJ, Tobin K, McRobbie C (eds) Second international handbook of science education. Springer, New York, pp 1191–1239Google Scholar
  2. Moos RH (1979) Evaluating educational environments: procedures measures findings and policy implications. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  3. Walberg HJ (ed) (1979) Educational environments and effects: evaluation, policy, and productivity. McCutchan, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by Simon Fraser University 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Simon Fraser UniversityVancouverCanada