Engineering, Assessing Understanding of
The definitions of engineering for this encyclopedia entry are based on numerous documents produced by national sets of experts. The definitions of engineering are the starting points for developing assessments of understanding of it. This encyclopedia entry begins with a summary of prominent conceptualizations of engineering. Descriptions of some potential types of assessment tasks and items to test understanding of engineering are provided.
Definitions of Engineering
Engineering is defined as a systematic and iterative approach to designing objects, processes, and systems to meet human needs and wants. The products and processes resulting from application of engineering design processes are technologies. Technologies also often function as tools and processes used to support engineering design.
Sources of Conceptualizations of Engineering
Standards for K-12 Engineering Education
The report surveyed contemporary frameworks, standards, and practices in engineering (NAE 2010). The...
- National Academy of Engineering (2010) Standards for engineering? The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) (2010) Technology and engineering literacy framework for the 2014 national assessment of educational progress. National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- National Research Council (NRC) (2011) A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- National Research Council (NRC) (2013) Next generation science standards. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar