Visualization and the Learning of Science
Representation, Visualization, and Models
In general terms, a representation is anything that recalls an entity to mind for either the verbal description or the actual portrayal of it. Visualizations are a major subset of representations, consisting of those that are actually perceived by the eye (“external representations”) or imagined in the mind (“internal representations”). Although still a matter of controversy, the only representations that are not usually classified as visualizations are words, whether spoken or written.
The goal of science is to produce explanations of the world as experienced. A model is a representation of a phenomenon in the world as experienced that is produced to enable specific types of explanations of it to be created (e.g., what causes it?). A model can be a representation of a material entity (e.g., the heart), an abstraction treated as if it were a...
KeywordsScience Education Pedagogic Content Knowledge Macro Level External Representation Professional Development Activity
- Gilbert JK (2010) Supporting the development of effective science teachers. In: Osborne J, Dillon J (eds) Good practice in science teaching. Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp 274–300Google Scholar
- Gilbert JK, Boulter CJ (2000) Developing models in science education. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
- Gilbert JK, Treagust DF (2009) Multiple representations in chemical education. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
- Kozma R, Russell J (2005) Modelling students becoming chemists: developing representational competence. In: Gilbert J (ed) Visualisation in science education. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 121–146Google Scholar
- Mayer R (2002) Using illustrations to promote constructivist learning from science text. In: Graesser A, Otero J, Leon J (eds) The psychology of science text comprehension. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 333–356Google Scholar
- Treagust D, Tsui CY (eds) (2013) Multiple representations in biological education. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar