Advertisement

Recycling Polymer Blends

  • Francesco Paolo La Mantia
  • Roberto Scaffaro
Reference work entry

Abstract

Starting with the second half of the 1970s, polymer recycling was extensively adopted to reuse plastics otherwise destined for landfills with the goal to avoid the consequent net loss of money and energy. The simple idea to reintroduce scraps or post-consumer plastics in the processing lines actually revealed complications because even adding the recycled polymer to the same virgin material often led to secondary materials due to differences in the molecular weight, branching, and difference of density. The situation appeared more complicated in the recycling of commingled plastics. In this case, the chemical nature and structures of the different components produce secondary materials with poor properties, thus inhibiting any possible practical application. Nevertheless, enforcement of the law about mandatory collection of post-consumer plastic and the repeated economic crises pushed toward the implementation of recycling of polymer blends in industrial processes, especially if the same processing equipments/methods used for virgin materials can be adopted. In this chapter a review of the recycling technologies of plastic blends is presented. In particular, the mechanical recycling of single polymers in the same virgin materials (the so-called “homopolymer” blends), typical in the on-site reuse of industrial scraps, and, in another section, the strategies that can be pursued to recycle directly a stream of commingled post-consumer plastics to obtain secondary materials with properties suitable for practical applications are analyzed.

Keywords

Impact Strength Injection Molding Maleic Anhydride Recycle Material Plastic Waste 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Abbreviations

CPE

Chlorinated polyethylene

EMAA

Ethylene–metacrylic acid copolymer

EPR

Ethylene–propylene rubber

GMA

Glycidyl methacrylate

HDPE

High-density polyethylene

LDPE

Low-density polyethylene

LLDPE

Linear low-density polyethylene

PA

Generically for polyamides

PA6

Polyamide 6

PB

Polybutadiene

PB-MA

Maleated (liquid) polybutadiene

PC

Polycarbonate

PE-g-MA

Polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride

PE-g-MB

Polyethylene grafted (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene)

PP-g-MA

Polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride

PET

Polyethyleneterephtalate

PP

Polypropylene

PS

Polystyrene

PU

Polyurethane

PVC

Polyvinylchloride

SBR

Styrene–butadiene rubber

SEBS

Styrene–ethylene–butadiene–styrene rubber

SEBS

g-MA styrene–ethylene–butadiene–styrene grafted maleic anhydride rubber

SEP

Styrene–ethylene–propylene copolymer

References

  1. A. Adewole, K. Dackson, M. Wolkowicz, Adv. Polym. Techn. 13, 219 (1994)Google Scholar
  2. C. Albano, G. Sanchez, Polym. Eng. Sci. 39, 1456 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. C. Albano, G. Sanchez, A. Ismayel, J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. 35, 1349 (1998)Google Scholar
  4. R. Aldi, Society of Plastics Engineers – Global Plastics Environmental Conference, 2010Google Scholar
  5. S. Al-Malaika, S. Chohan, M. Coker, G. Scott, R. Arnaud, P. Dabin, A. Fauve, J. Lemaire, J. Pure Appl. Chem. A32, 709 (1995)Google Scholar
  6. F.D. Alsewailem, Technical papers, regional technical conference. Soc. Plast. Eng. 2, 659 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. G.D. Andrews, P.M. Subramanian, Emerging technologies, in Plastics Recycling. ACS Symposium Series (Washington, DC, 1992)Google Scholar
  8. J.C. Arnold, S. Alston, A. Holder, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 94, 693 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. V.M. Aslaniam, V.I. Vardanian, M.H. Avetisian, S.S. Felekian, S.R. Ayvasyan, Polymer 28, 755 (1987)Google Scholar
  10. X. Bai, D.H. Isaac, K. Smith, Polym. Eng. Sci. 47, 120 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. B. Ballauri, M. Trabuio, F.P. La Mantia, Compatibilization of recycled polyethyleneterephthalate/polypropylene blends using a functionalized rubber, in Recycling of PVC and Mixed Plastics, ed. by F.P. La Mantia (Chemtec Publishing, Toronto, 1993)Google Scholar
  12. M.-L. Barthes, O. Mantaux, M. Pedros, E. Lacoste, M. Dumon, Adv. Polym. Technol. 31, 343 (2012)Google Scholar
  13. S. Bertin, J.J. Robin, Europ. Polym. J. 38, 2255 (2002)Google Scholar
  14. S.N. Bhattacharya, I. Sbarski, Plast. Rubber Compos. 27, 317 (1998)Google Scholar
  15. A. Boldizar, K. Moller, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 81, 359 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. C.M.C. Bonelli, A.F. Martins, E.B. Mano, C.L. Beatty, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 80, 1305 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. T. Boronat, V.J. Segui, M.A. Peydro, M.J. Reig, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209, 2735 (2009)Google Scholar
  18. J. Brandrup, M. Bittner, W. Michaeli, G. Menges, Recycling and Recovery of Plastics (Hanser, Munchen, 1995)Google Scholar
  19. L.B. Brennan, D.H. Isaac, J.C. Arnold, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 86, 572 (2002)Google Scholar
  20. G. Brown, G. Mcnally, J. Grabowska, P. Beaney, S. Cherry, ANTEC, Conf. Proc. 1, 30 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. B.I. Chaudhary, L. Chopin, J. Klier, Polym. Eng. Sci. 47, 50 (2007)Google Scholar
  22. R. Choudhury, S. Kumar, B. Adhikari, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 106, 775 (2007)Google Scholar
  23. KGK-Kautschuk und Gummi Kunststoffe, 53, 273 (2000)Google Scholar
  24. I.H. Craig, J.R. White, J. Mater. Sci. 41, 993 (2006)Google Scholar
  25. S. Daren, Polimery 43, 379 (1998)Google Scholar
  26. N.T. Dintcheva, N. Jilov, F.P. La Mantia, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 57, 191 (1997)Google Scholar
  27. B. Dubrulle D’Orhcel, A new process for recycling of mixed plastics waste, in Recycling of PVC and Mixed Plastics, ed. by F.P. La Mantia (Chemtec Publishing, Toronto, 1993)Google Scholar
  28. F. Elmaghor, L. Zhang, R. Fan, H. Li, Polymer 45, 6719 (2004)Google Scholar
  29. N. Equiza, W. Yave, R. Quijada, M. Yazdani-Pedram, Macromol. Mater. Eng. 292, 1001 (2007)Google Scholar
  30. I. Fortelny, Z. Krulis, D. Michalkova, Die Angew. Makromol. Chem. 238, 97 (1996)Google Scholar
  31. I. Fortelny, Z. Krulis, D. Michalkova, Polimery 47, 534 (2002)Google Scholar
  32. F. Fraısse, V. Verney, S. Commereuc, M. Obadal, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 90, 250 (2005)Google Scholar
  33. D. Garcia, R. Balart, J.E. Crespo, J. Lopez, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 101, 2464 (2006)Google Scholar
  34. S.A. Ghani, H. Ismail, A.M.M. Yusof, Progr. Rubber Plast. Re. 21, 85 (2005)Google Scholar
  35. O. Grigoryeva, A. Fainleib, O. Starostenko, A. Tolstov, W. Brostow, Polym. Int. 53, 1693 (2004)Google Scholar
  36. O. Grigoryeva, A. Fainleib, L. Stepanenko, L. Sergeeva, P. Pissis, Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 801 (2005)Google Scholar
  37. O. Grigoryeva, A. Fainleib, J.B. Grenet, J.M.B. Saiter, Rubber Chem. Technol. 81, 737 (2008)Google Scholar
  38. A. Gugliemotti, C. Lucignano, F. Quadrini, Plast. Rubber Compos. 41, 40 (2012)Google Scholar
  39. C.S. Sik Ha, H.D. Park, W.J. Cho, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74, 1531 (1999)Google Scholar
  40. C.-S. Ha, H.-D. Park, W.-J. Cho, Polym. Recycl. 5, 1 (2000)Google Scholar
  41. H. Herbst, R. Pfaendner, Polym. Recycl. 4, 75 (1999)Google Scholar
  42. H. Herbst, K. Hoffmann, R. Pfaendner, F. Sitek, Kunstst. Ger. Plast. 82, 783 (1992)Google Scholar
  43. P.S. Hope, J.G. Bonner, A.F. Miles, Plast. Rubber Compos. Proc. Appl. 22, 147 (1994)Google Scholar
  44. H. Inoya, W.B. Klinklai, Y.W.C. Leong, H.C. Hamada, Technical papers, regional technical conference. Soc. Plast. Eng. 3, 1815 (2008)Google Scholar
  45. H. Inoya, Y.W.C. Leong, W.B. Klinklai, S. Thumsorn, Y. Makata, H. Hamada, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 124, 3947 (2012)Google Scholar
  46. R. Jeziórska, Pigm. Resin Technol. 35, 3 (2006)Google Scholar
  47. C. Jiang, G.J. Zhong, Z.M. Li, Macromol. Mater. Eng. 292, 362 (2007)Google Scholar
  48. Y. Joshi, R. Lehman, T. Nosker, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 99, 2044 (2006)Google Scholar
  49. E.-K. Karahaliou, P.A. Tarantili, Polym. Eng. Sci. 49, 2269 (2009)Google Scholar
  50. J. Karger-Kocsis, L. Mészáros, T. Bárány, J. Mater. Sci. 48, 1 (2013)Google Scholar
  51. C.N. Kartalis, C.D. Papaspyrides, R. Pfaendner, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 70, 189 (2000a)Google Scholar
  52. C.N. Kartalis, C.D. Papaspyrides, R. Pfaendner, K. Hoffman, H. Herbst, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 77, 1118 (2000b)Google Scholar
  53. C.N. Kartalis, C.D. Papaspyrides, R. Pfaendner, K. Hoffman, H. Herbst, Polym. Eng. Sci. 41, 771 (2001)Google Scholar
  54. K. Khait, J.M. Thorkelson, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 38, 445 (1999)Google Scholar
  55. K. Khait, S.H. Carr, H. Martin, M.H. Mack, Solid-State Shear Pulverization (Technomic, Lancaster, 2001)Google Scholar
  56. J.K. Kim, C.K. Kang, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 34, 875 (1995)Google Scholar
  57. G.H. Kim, S.S. Hwang, B.G. Cho, S.M. Hong, Macromol. Symp. 249–250, 485 (2007)Google Scholar
  58. A.K. Kulshreshtha, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 32, 551 (1993)Google Scholar
  59. F.P. La Mantia, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 14, 241 (1986)Google Scholar
  60. F.P. La Mantia, Degradation of polymer blends, in Handbook of Polymer Degradation, ed. by S. Halim Hamid, M.B. Amin, A.G. Maadhah (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992a)Google Scholar
  61. F.P. La Mantia, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 37, 145 (1992b)Google Scholar
  62. F.P. La Mantia, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 42, 213 (1993a)Google Scholar
  63. F.P. La Mantia, Basic concepts on the recycling of homogeneous and heterogeneous plastics, in Recycling of PVC and Mixed Plastics (Chemtec Publishing, Toronto, 1993b)Google Scholar
  64. F.P. La Mantia (ed.), Hanbook of Plstics Recycling (RAPRA, Shrewbury, 2002)Google Scholar
  65. F.P. La Mantia (ed.), Recycling of Plastics Materials (Chemtec Publishing, Toronto, 1995)Google Scholar
  66. F.P. La Mantia, Polym. Recycl. 20, 11 (2004)Google Scholar
  67. F.P. La Mantia, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 95, 285 (2010)Google Scholar
  68. F.P. La Mantia, L. Capizzi, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 71, 285 (2001)Google Scholar
  69. F.P. La Mantia, D. Curto, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 36, 131 (1992)Google Scholar
  70. F.P. La Mantia, N.T. Dintcheva, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91, 2244 (2004)Google Scholar
  71. F.P. La Mantia, N.T. Dintcheva, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 26, 361 (2005a)Google Scholar
  72. F.P. La Mantia, N.T. Dintcheva, Macromol. Mat. Eng. 290, 970 (2005b)Google Scholar
  73. F.P. La Mantia, R. Scaffaro, Polym. Recycl. 3, 209 (1997)Google Scholar
  74. F.P. La Mantia, M. Marrone, B. Dubrulle D’Orhcel, Polym. Recycl. 2, 3 (1996)Google Scholar
  75. O. Laguna Castellanos, E.P. Collar, Resour. Conserv. Rec. 2, 37 (1988)Google Scholar
  76. O. Laguna, E.P. Collar, J. Taranco, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 38, 667 (1989)Google Scholar
  77. J.J. Laverty, R.L. Bullach, T.S. Ellis, T.E. Mcminn, Polym. Recycl. 2, 159 (1996)Google Scholar
  78. Y.K. Lee, H.K. Lee, T.W. Yoo, H.G. Yoon, W.N. Kim, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 127, 1416 (2012)Google Scholar
  79. X. Liu, H. Bertilsson, Polym. Recycl. 3, 107 (1997)Google Scholar
  80. X. Liu, H. Bertilsson, Doktorsavhandlingar (Chalmers Tekniska, Hogskola, 2000)Google Scholar
  81. X. Liu, A. Boldizar, M. Rigdahl, H. Bertilsson, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 86, 2535 (2002)Google Scholar
  82. C.M.A. Lopes, M.I. Felisberti, Polym. Test. 23, 637 (2004)Google Scholar
  83. C.M.A. Lopes, M.I. Felisberti, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 101, 3183 (2006)Google Scholar
  84. C.M.A. Lopes, M.C. Goncalves, M.I. Felisberti, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 106, 2524 (2007)Google Scholar
  85. C.-W. Lou, C.-W. Lin, C.-W, C.-H. Lei, K.-U. Su, K.-U, Suh, Z.-H. Liu, Z.-H. Lin, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 428, 192–193 (2007)Google Scholar
  86. N.K. Madi, Mater. Des. 46, 435–441 (2013)Google Scholar
  87. S.N. Maiti, U.K. Saroop, A. Misra, Polym. Eng. Sci. 32, 27 (1992)Google Scholar
  88. M. Malinconico, M.G. Volpe, F. Pota, Polym. Recycl. 3, 281 (1997)Google Scholar
  89. E.B. Mano, C.M.C. Bonelli, M.A. Guadagnini, S.J. Moyses-Luiz, Polim Ciéncia Tecnol 4, 19 (1994)Google Scholar
  90. J.C. Martinez, R. Benavides, C. Guerrero, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 108, 2597 (2008)Google Scholar
  91. L. Mészáros, M. Fejos, T. Bárány, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 125, 512 (2012)Google Scholar
  92. P. Miller, I. Sbarski, E. Kosior, S. Masood, P. Iovenitti, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 82, 3505 (2001)Google Scholar
  93. V. Mital, Polym. Recycl. 2, 173 (1996)Google Scholar
  94. C.L Moad, D.J. Windzor, Prog. Polym. Sci. 23, 759 (1998)Google Scholar
  95. L.S. Montagna, R.M.C. Santana, Plast. Rubber Compos. 41, 256 (2012)Google Scholar
  96. T. Nedkov, F. Lednicky, M. Mihailova, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 109, 226 (2008)Google Scholar
  97. M. Nerkar, S. Bandyopahyay, R. Kamalakaran, S. Gupta, H. Guo, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120, 2921 (2011)Google Scholar
  98. T.J. Nosker, R.W. Renfree, D.R. Morrow, Plast. Eng. 33, 90 (1990)Google Scholar
  99. C.D. Papaspyrides, C.N. Kartalis, R. Pfaendner, Polym. Recycl. 6, 1 (2001)Google Scholar
  100. H.D. Park, K.P. Park, W.J. Cho, C.S. Ha, S.K. Kwon, Polym. Recycl. 2, 277 (1996a)Google Scholar
  101. H.D. Park, K.P. Park, W.J. Cho, H. Chang-Sik, K. Soon-Ki, Polym. Recycl. 2, 283 (1996b)Google Scholar
  102. G.N. Patel, A. Keller, J. Polym. Sci. Phys. Ed. 13, 303 (1975)Google Scholar
  103. P. Pattabiraman, I. Sbarski, T. Spurling, E. Kosior, ANTEC, Conf. Proc. 8, 301 (2005)Google Scholar
  104. D.R. Paul, C.E. Vison, C.E. Locke, Polym. Eng. Sci. 12, 157 (1972)Google Scholar
  105. D.R. Paul, C.E. Locke, C.E. Vinson, Polym. Eng. Sci. 13, 202 (1973a)Google Scholar
  106. D.R. Paul, C.E. Vison, C.E. Locke, Polym. Eng. Sci. 13, 308 (1973b)Google Scholar
  107. A. Pawlak, J. Morawiec, F. Pazzagli, M. Pracella, A. Galeski, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 86, 1473 (2002a)Google Scholar
  108. A. Pawlak, J. Morawiec, A. Galeski, Polimery 47, 491 (2002b)Google Scholar
  109. J.M. Pérez, J.L. Vilas, J.M. Laza, S. Arnáiz, F. Mijangos, E. Bilbao, M. Rodriguez, L.M. Leon, J. Polym. Environ. 18, 71 (2010)Google Scholar
  110. R. Pfaender, in Plastics Additives Handbook, ed. by H. Zweifel, 5th edn. (Hanser, Munich, 2001). Chap.19Google Scholar
  111. R. Pfaendner, H. Herbst, K. Hoffmann, F. Sitek, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 232, 193 (1995)Google Scholar
  112. R. Pfaendner, H. Herbst, K. Hoffmann, Eng. Plast. 9, 249 (1996)Google Scholar
  113. R. Pfaendner, H. Herbst, K. Hoffmann, Macromol. Symp. 135, 97 (1998)Google Scholar
  114. M. Pluta, Z. Barczak, A. Pawlak, A. Galeski, M. Pracella, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 82, 1423 (2001)Google Scholar
  115. J. Pospisil, F. Sitek, R. Pfaendner, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 48, 351 (1995)Google Scholar
  116. J. Pospisil, S. Nespurek, R. Pfaendner, H. Zweifel, Trends Polym. Sci. 5, 294 (1997)Google Scholar
  117. J. Pospisil, I. Fortelny, D. Michalkova, Z. Krulis, M. Slouf, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 90, 244 (2005)Google Scholar
  118. K. Qi, K. Nakayama, Polym. Polym. Compos. 8, 187 (2000)Google Scholar
  119. E. Ramırez-Vargas, Z. Sandoval-Arellano, J.S. Hernández-Valdez, J.G. Martınez-Colunga, S. Sánchez-Valdés, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 100, 3696 (2006)Google Scholar
  120. M.J. Reig, V.J. Segui, S. Ferrandiz, J.D. Zamanillo, J. Polym. Eng. 27, 29 (2007)Google Scholar
  121. L.M. Robeson, Polym. Eng. Sci. 24, 587 (1984)Google Scholar
  122. J. Rybnicek, J. Steidl, Z. Krulis, R. Lach, W. Grellmann, Global Plastics Environmental Conference 2005: GPEC 2005 – Creating Sustainability for the Environment, 2005, p. 157Google Scholar
  123. E.M.S. Sanchez, Polym. Test. 26, 378 (2007)Google Scholar
  124. M. Sánchez-Soto, A. Rossa, A.J. Sánchez, J. Gámez-Pérez, Waste Manag. 28, 2565 (2008)Google Scholar
  125. A.S.F. Santos, R.C. Santana, J.A.M. Agnelli, S. Manrich, Polym. Recycl. 6, 57 (2001)Google Scholar
  126. R. Scaffaro, L. Botta, G. Di Benedetto, Europ. Polym. J. 48, 637 (2012)Google Scholar
  127. R. Scaffaro, F.P. La Mantia, Polym. Eng. Sci. 42, 2412 (2002)Google Scholar
  128. R. Scaffaro, F.P. La Mantia, L. Botta, M. Morreale, N. Tz. Dintcheva, P. Mariani Polym. Eng. Sci 49, 1316 (2009)Google Scholar
  129. R. Scaffaro, N.T. Dintcheva, M.A. Nocilla, F.P. La Mantia, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 90, 281 (2005)Google Scholar
  130. R. Scaffaro, F.P. La Mantia, N.T. Dintcheva, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 91, 3110 (2006)Google Scholar
  131. R. Scaffaro, F.P. La Mantia, N.Tz. Dintcheva Eur. Polym. J. 43, 2947 (2007)Google Scholar
  132. J. Scheirs, Polymer Recycling (Wiley, New York, 1998)Google Scholar
  133. G. Scott, Recycling of PVC: effect of the processing operations, in Recycling of PVC and Mixed Plastics, ed. by F.P. La Mantia (Chemtec Publishing, Toronto, 1993)Google Scholar
  134. R. Sonnier, E. Leroy, L. Clerc, A. Bergeret, J.M. Lopez-Cuesta, Polym Testing, 26, 274 (2007)Google Scholar
  135. J.C.M. Suarez, E.B. Mano, Polym. Test. 19, 607 (2000)Google Scholar
  136. J.C.M. Suarez, E.B. Mano, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 72, 217 (2001)Google Scholar
  137. J.C.M. Suarez, E.B. Mano, C.M.C. Bonelli, Polym. Eng. Sci. 39, 398 (1999)Google Scholar
  138. J.C.M. Suarez, E.B. Mano, R.A. Pereira, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 69, 217 (2000a)Google Scholar
  139. J.C.M. Suarez, E.B. Mano, M.I.B. Tavares, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 78, 899 (2000b)Google Scholar
  140. I.H. Supri, A.M.M. Yusof, Iran. Polym. J. Engl. Ed. 14, 565 (2005)Google Scholar
  141. Y. Wyser, Y. Leterrier, J.-A.E. Månson, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 78, 910 (2000)Google Scholar
  142. M. Xanthos, A. Patel, S. Dey, S.S. Dagli, C. Jacos, T.J. Nosker, R.W. Renfree, Adv. Polym. Technol. 13, 231 (1994)Google Scholar
  143. M. Xanthos, J. Grenci, S.H. Patel, A. Patel, C. Jacos, S. Dey, S.S. Dagli, Polym. Compos. 16, 204 (1995)Google Scholar
  144. L. Yam Kit, K.L. Nichols, S.E. Selke, Technical papers, regional technical conference Soc. Plast. Eng. 77 (1998)Google Scholar
  145. H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Guo, D. Xu, C. Wu, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 109, 3546 (2008)Google Scholar
  146. Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Yu, W. Guo, C. Wu, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 114, 1187 (2009)Google Scholar
  147. H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Guo, C. Wu, Polym. Adv. Technol. 22, 1851 (2011)Google Scholar
  148. X.A. Zhang, C.B. Chen, C.A. Lu, Progr. Rubber Plast. Restor. 28, 81 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil, Environment, Aerospace and Materials EngineeringUniversity of PalermoPalermoItaly

Personalised recommendations