Skip to main content

Whole-Body Motion Planning

  • Reference work entry
  • First Online:
Humanoid Robotics: A Reference

Abstract

This chapter addresses whole-body motion planning for humanoid robots. Taking advantage of recent progress of motion planning techniques for many degree of freedom (DOF) systems, early work in humanoid motion planning started with a two-stage approach that utilizes kinematic and geometric motion planning to plan a rough path that is later transformed into a whole-body motion including locomotion with a dynamic biped walking pattern generator. Subsequent progress beyond this functional decomposition is to exploit all the DOFs for the desired task. Whole-body motion planning was then tackled by integrating generalized inverse kinematics that allows achieving the specified tasks by taking into account such constraints as balance, foot positions, or joint limits at the same time. Some applications are presented such as reactive planning in changing cluttered environments, whole-body manipulation of bulky objects, and footstep planning by variable kinematic modeling of footholds. The effectiveness of the proposed methods has been validated through experiments with the human-size humanoid platform HRP-2.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 899.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 1,099.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. P. Baerlocher, R. Boulic, An inverse kinematics architecture enforcing and arbitrary number of strict priority levels. Vis. Comput. 20, 402–417 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. D. Berenson, S. Srinivasa, J. Kuffner, Task space regions: a framework for pose-constrained manipulation planning. Int. J. Robot. Res. 30(12), 1435–1460 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. D. Berenson, S.S. Srinivasa, D. Ferguson, A. Collet, J.J. Kuffner, Manipulation planning with workspace goal regions, in Proceedings of 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009, pp. 1397–1403

    Google Scholar 

  4. H. Choset, K. Lynch, S. Hutchinson, G. Kantor, W. Burgard, L. Kavraki, S. Thrun, Principles of Robot Motion: Theory, Algorithms, and Implementation (MIT Press, Cambridge, 2006)

    Google Scholar 

  5. S. Dalibard, A. Nakhaei, F. Lamiraux, J.P. Laumond, Whole-body task planning for a humanoid robot: a way to integrate collision avoidance, in Proceedings of 2009 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2009, pp. 355–360

    Google Scholar 

  6. Defense Advanced Resaerch Projects Agency, Darpa robotics challenge. http://www.theroboticschallenge.org/ (2015)

  7. L.E. Dubins, On curves of minimal length with a constraint on average curvature and prescribed initial and terminal positions and tangents. Am. J. Math. 79, 497–516 (1957)

    Google Scholar 

  8. A. Escande, N. Mansard, P.B. Wieber, Hierarchical quadratic programming: fast online humanoid-robot motion generation. Int. J. Robot. Res. 33(7), 1006–1028 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. C. Esteves, G. Arechavaleta, J. Pettré, J.P. Laumond, Animation planning for virtual characters cooperation. ACM Trans. Graph. 25(2), 319–339 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. M. Gleicher, Comparing constraint-based motion editing method. Graph. Model. 63, 107–134 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. H. Harada, S. Kajita, F. Kanehiro, K. Fujiwara, K. Kaneko, K. Yokoi, H. Hirukawa, Real-time planning of humanoid robot’s gait for force controlled manipulation, in Proceedings of 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004, pp. 616–622

    Google Scholar 

  12. H. Harada, S. Kajita, H. Saito, M. Morisawa, F. Kanehiro, K. Fujiwara, K. Kaneko, H. Hirukawa, A humanoid robot carrying a heavy object, in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005, pp. 1712–1717

    Google Scholar 

  13. K. Harada, M. Morisawa, K. Miura, S. Nakaoka, K. Fujiwara, K. Kaneko, S. Kajita, Kinodynamic gait planning for full-body humanoid robots, in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2008, pp. 1544–1550

    Google Scholar 

  14. K. Hirai, M. Hirose, Y. Haikawa, T. Takenaka, The development of Honda humanoid robot, in Proceedings of 1998 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1998, pp. 1321–1326

    Google Scholar 

  15. D. Hsu, J.C. Latombe, S. Sorkin, Placing a robot manipulator amid obstacles for optimized execution, in Proceedings of 1999 International Symposium on Assembly and Task Planning, 1999, pp. 280–285

    Google Scholar 

  16. S. Kajita, F. Kanehiro, K. Kaneko, K. Fujiwara, K. Harada, K. Yokoi, H. Hirukawa, Biped walking pattern generation by using preview control of zero-moment point, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2003, pp. 1620–1626

    Google Scholar 

  17. S. Kajita, F. Kanehiro, K. Kaneko, K. Fujiwara, K. Harada, K. Yokoi, H. Hirukawa, Resolved momentum control: humanoid motion planning based on the linear and angular momentum, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2003, pp. 1644–1650

    Google Scholar 

  18. F. Kanehiro, E. Yoshida, K. Yokoi, Efficient reaching motion planning and execution for exploration by humanoid robots, in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2012, pp. 1911–1916

    Google Scholar 

  19. F. Kanehiro, E. Yoshida, K. Yokoi, Efficient reaching motion planning method for low-level autonomy of teleoperated humanoid robots. Adv. Robot. 28(7), 433–439 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1080/01691864.2013.876931

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. K. Kaneko, F. Kanehiro, S. Kajita, H. Hirukawa, T. Kawasaki, M. Hirata, K. Akachi, T. Isozumi, The humanoid robot HRP-2, in Proceedings of 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004, pp. 1083–1090

    Google Scholar 

  21. O. Kanoun, F. Lamiraux, P.B. Wieber, Kinematic control of redundant manipulators: generalizing the task priority framework. IEEE Trans. Robot. 27(4), 785–792 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. O. Kanoun, F. Lamiraux, P.B. Wieber, F. Kanehiro, E. Yoshida, J.P. Laumond, Prioritizing linear equality and inequality systems: application to local motion planning for redundant robots, in Proceedings of 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009, pp. 2939–2944

    Google Scholar 

  23. O. Kanoun, J.P. Laumond, E. Yoshida, Planning foot placements for a humanoid robot: a problem of inverse kinematics. Int. J. Robot. Res. 30(4), 476–485 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1177/0278364910368147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. L. Kavraki, P. Svestka, J.C. Latombe, M. Overmars, Probabilistic roadmaps for path planning in high-dimensional configuration spaces. IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 12(4), 566–580 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. J. Kuffner, S. Kagami, K. Nishiwaki, M. Inaba, H. Inoue, Dynamically-stable motion planning for humanoid robots. Auton. Robot. 12(1), 105–118 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  26. J. Kuffner, S. LaValle, RRT-connect: an efficient approach to single-query path planning, in Proceedings of 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004, pp. 995–1001

    Google Scholar 

  27. J.P. Laumond (ed.), Robot Motion Planning and Control. Lectures Notes in Control and Information Sciences, vol. 229. (Springer, London, 1998)

    Google Scholar 

  28. S. LaValle, Planning Algorithm (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2006)

    Google Scholar 

  29. S. LaValle, J. Kuffner, Randomized kinodynamic planning, in Proceedings of 1999 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1999, pp. 473–479

    Google Scholar 

  30. S. LaValle, J. Kuffner, Rapidly-exploring random trees: progress and prospects, in Algorithmic and Computational Robotics: New Directions, ed. by K.M. Lynch, D. Rus (A K Peters, Natick, 2001), pp. 293–308

    Google Scholar 

  31. N. Mansard, O. Stasse, F. Chaumette, K. Yokoi, Visually-guided grasping while walking on a humanoid robot, in Proceedings of 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2007, pp. 3042–3047

    Google Scholar 

  32. M. Murooka, S. Noda, S. Nozawa, Y. Kakiuchi, K. Okada, M. Inaba, Manipulation strategy decision and execution based on strategy proving operation for carrying large and heavy objects, in Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2014, pp. 3425–3432

    Google Scholar 

  33. Y. Nakamura, Advanced Robotics: Redundancy and Optimization (Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing, Boston, 1991)

    Google Scholar 

  34. S. Nakaoka, Choreonoid: extensible virtual robot environment built on an integrated gui framework, in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration, 2012, pp. 79–85

    Google Scholar 

  35. S. Nakaoka, M. Morisawa, R. Cisneros, T. Sakaguchi, S. Kajita, K. Kaneko, F. Kanehiro, Task sequencer integrated into a teleoperation interface for biped humanoid robots, in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2015, pp. 895–900

    Google Scholar 

  36. K. Okada, M. Kojima, Y. Sagawa, T. Ichino, K. Sato, M. Inaba, Vision based behavior verification system of humanoid robot for daily environment tasks, in Proceedings of 2006 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2006, pp. 7–12

    Google Scholar 

  37. C. Ott, C. Baumgartner, J. Mayr, M. Fuchs, R. Burger, D. Lee, O. Eiberger, A. Albu-Schaffer, M. Grebenstein, G. Hirzinger, Development of a biped robot with torque controlled joints, in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2010, pp. 167–173

    Google Scholar 

  38. S. Quinlan, Efficient distance computation between non-convex objects, in Proceedings of 1994 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1994, pp. 3324–3329

    Google Scholar 

  39. J.A. Reeds, R.A. Shepp, Optimal paths for a car that goes both forwards and backwards. Pac. J. Math. 145(2), 367–393 (1990)

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  40. L. Saab, N. Mansard, F. Keith, J.Y. Fourquet, P. Soueres, Generation of dynamic motion for anthropomorphic systems under prioritized equality and inequality constraints, in Proceedings of 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2011, pp. 1091–1096

    Google Scholar 

  41. L. Sentis, O. Khatib, Synthesis of whole-body behaviors through hierarchical control of behavioral primitives. Int. J. Humanoid Rob. 2(4), 505–518 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. N.E. Sian, K. Yokoi, S. Kajita, K. Tanie, A framework for remote execution of whole body motions for humanoid robots, in Proceedings of 2004 IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2004, pp. 608–626

    Google Scholar 

  43. B. Siciliano, J.J.E. Slotine, A general framework for managing multiple tasks in highly redundant robotic systems, in Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics, 1991, pp. 1211–1216

    Google Scholar 

  44. T. Simeon, J.P. Laumond, J. Cortes, A. Sahbani, Manipulation planning with probabilistic roadmaps. Int. J. Robot. Res. 23(7–8), 729–746 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. M. Stilman, J. Kuffner, Navigation among movable obstacles: real-time reasoning in complex environments, in Proceedings of 2004 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robotics, 2004, pp. 322–341

    Google Scholar 

  46. M. Stilman, K. Nishiwaki, S. Kagami, J. Kuffner, Planning and executing navigation among movable obstacles, in Proceedings of 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006, pp. 820–826

    Google Scholar 

  47. H. Sugiura, M. Gienger, H. Janssen, C. Goerick, Real-time collision avoidance with whole body motion control for humanoid robots, in Proceedings of 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007, pp. 2053–2058

    Google Scholar 

  48. W. Suleiman, E. Yoshida, F. Kanehiro, J.P. Laumond, A. Monin, On human motion imitation by humanoid robot, in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2008, pp. 2697–2704

    Google Scholar 

  49. W. Suleiman, E. Yoshida, J.P. Laumond, A. Monin, On humanoid motion optimization, in Proceedings of 7th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2007, pp. 180–187

    Google Scholar 

  50. M.V. Weghe, D. Ferguson, S.S. Srinivasa, Randomized path planning for redundant manipulators without inverse kinematics, in Proceedings of 2007 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2007, pp. 477–482

    Google Scholar 

  51. E. Yoshida, C. Esteves, I. Belousov, J.P. Laumond, T. Sakaguchi, K. Yokoi, Planning 3D collision-free dynamic robotic motion through iterative reshaping. IEEE Trans. Robot. 24(5), 1186–1198 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2008.2002312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. E. Yoshida, F. Kanehiro, Reactive robot motion using path replanning and deformation, in Proceedings of 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2011, pp. 5457–5462

    Google Scholar 

  53. E. Yoshida, O. Kanoun, C. Esteves, J.P. Laumond, K. Yokoi, Task-driven support polygon reshaping for humanoids, in Proceedings of 6th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2006, pp. 827–832

    Google Scholar 

  54. E. Yoshida, M. Poirier, J.P. Laumond, R. Alami, K. Yokoi, Pivoting based manipulation by humanoids: a controllability analysis, in Proceedings of 2007 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007, pp. 1130–1135

    Google Scholar 

  55. E. Yoshida, M. Poirier, J.P. Laumond, O. Kanoun, F. Lamiraux, R. Alami, K. Yokoi, Regrasp planning for pivoting manipulation by a humanoid robot, in Proceedings of 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009, pp. 2467–2472

    Google Scholar 

  56. E. Yoshida, K. Yokoi, P. Gergondet, Online replanning for reactive robot motion: practical aspects, in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2010, pp. 5927–5933

    Google Scholar 

  57. T. Yoshikawa, Manipulability of robotic mechanisms. Int. J. Robot. Res. 4(2), 3–9 (1985)

    Google Scholar 

  58. F. Zacharias, C. Borst, G. Hirzinger, Capturing robot workspace structure: representing robot capabilities, in Proceedings of 2007 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2007, pp. 3229–3236

    Google Scholar 

  59. F. Zacharias, W. Sepp, C. Borst, G. Hirzinger, Using a model of the reachable workspace to position mobile manipulators for “3-D” trajectories, in Proceedings of 2009 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2009, pp. 55–61

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eiichi Yoshida .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature B.V.

About this entry

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Yoshida, E., Kanehiro, F., Laumond, JP. (2019). Whole-Body Motion Planning. In: Goswami, A., Vadakkepat, P. (eds) Humanoid Robotics: A Reference. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6046-2_30

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics