Biosecurity Education and Awareness in Neuroscience
This first content chapter of the section starts with a short historical overview of the military interest in neuroscience research. Based on this account, it asks the question of how neuroscience has responded to the ethical issues that have emerged as part of these research activities. An analysis of current ethical training shows that such a debate has been underdeveloped and that the question of dual-use within ethics education of neuroscientists is very limited. Based on these findings the chapter explores the relationship between the security community, specifically, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and how neuroethicists could help the Convention in addressing the lack of awareness within the neuroscience community of the militarization and dual-use of their research and technologies.
- Dando, M. R. (2008). Developing educational modules for life scientists accelerating the process through an open source initiative. Presented to the IWG–LNCV biological workshop and round table on fostering the biosecurity norm: An educational module for life sciences students, 27 Oct at the Municipality of Como, Italy.Google Scholar
- BTWC. (2008). Report of the meeting of states parties, 12 December, BWC/MSP/2008/5. Geneva: United Nations.Google Scholar
- Dando, M. R., & Rappert, B. (2005). Codes of conduct for the life sciences: Some insights from UK academia. Bradford briefing papers, 16 May 2005. http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/sbtwc/briefing/BP_16_2ndseries.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Feaks, D., Rappert, B., & McLeish, C. (2007). Introduction: A web of prevention? In B. Rappert & C. McLeish (Eds.), A web of prevention: Biological weapons, life science and the governance of research (pp. 1–13). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Freedman, D. (2010) Israle. In B. Rappert (Ed.), Education and ethics in the life sciences: Strengthening the prohibition of biological weapons (pp. 75–91). Canberra: Australian National University E Press. http://epress.anu.edu.au/education_ethics.html. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Fukushi, T. (2012). Neuroethics and biosecurity in Japan, presented at an experts meeting on neuroethics at the University of Bradford, 21 July. Bradford, UK.Google Scholar
- Gorski, A., & Spier, R. E. (Eds.)(2010). Special issue section: The advancement of science and the dilemma of dual-use. Science and Engineering Ethics, 16(1), 1–219.Google Scholar
- Inter-Academy Panel. (2005). IAP statement on biosecurity. http://www.interacademies.net/File.aspx?id=5401. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Japan in consultation with JACKSNNZ. (2008). Oversight, education, awareness raising, and codes of conduct for preventing the misuse of bio-science and biotechnology, BWC/MSP/2008/MX/WP.21, 14 Aug. http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/5950537.32395172.html. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Mancini, G., & Revill, J. (2008). Fostering the biosecurity norm: Biosecurity education for the next generation of life scientists. Bradford: University of Bradford. http://www.brad.ac.uk/bioethics/media/SSIS/Bioethics/docs/European_Case_study.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Minehata, M. (2010). An investigation of biosecurity education for life scientists in the Asia Pacific region. Research monograph for the Wellcome Trust project on building a sustainable capacity in dual-use bioethics. Exeter and Bradford: University of Exeter and University of Bradford. http://www.brad.ac.uk/bioethics/media/ssis/bioethics/docs/Asia-Pacific-Biosec-Investigation.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Minehata, M., & Shinomiya, N. (2010). Japan: Obstacles, lesson and future. In B. Rappert (Ed.), Education and ethics in the life sciences: Strengthening the prohibition of biological weapons (pp. 93–114). Canberra: Australian National University E Press. http://epress.anu.edu.au/education_ethics.html Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Moreno, J. D. (2012). Mind wars: Brain science and the military in the twenty-first century (2nd ed.). New York: Bellevue Literary Press.Google Scholar
- National Research Council. (2006). Globalization, biosecurity, and the future of the life sciences. Washington, DC: National Academies. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11567. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- National Research Council. (2009). A survey of attitudes and actions on dual-use research in the life sciences: A collaborative effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Washington, DC: National Academies. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12460. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- National Research Council. (2010). Challenges and opportunities for education about dual use issues in the life sciences. Washington, DC: National Academies. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12958.
- Netherlands. (2008). Development of a code of conduct on biosecurity, BWC/MSP/2008/MX/WP.8, July 30. http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/7816224.69425201.html. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- NSABB. (2008). Strategic Plan for Outreach and Education on Dual Use Research Issues. Report of the NSABB, Washington, DC: NSABB. http://oba.od.nih.gov/biosecurity/news_events_oba.html#NSABB. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- OECD. (2007). Best practice guidelines on biosecurity for BRCS. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Rappert, B. (2010). An action plan for education: Possibilities and plans. Presented at the ESRC-JSPS collaborative seminar: Dual-use education for life scientists: Mapping the current global landscape and developments. 15–16 July, UK: University of Bradford. http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/sbtwc/dube/resource/ESRC_seminar_web/ppt/Rappert_ActionPLan.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Rappert, B., Chevrier, M. I., Dando, M. R. (2006). In-depth implementation of the BTWC: Education and outreach. Bradford review conference papers, 18. http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/sbtwc/briefing/RCP_18.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.
- Revill, J., Mancini, G., Minehata, M., Shinomiya, N. (2009). Biosecurity education: Surveys from Europe and Japan. Background paper for the international workshop on promoting education on dual-use issues in the life sciences. 16–18 Nov, Warsaw, Poland: Polish Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
- Smith, G., Davison, N., Koppelman, B. (2010). The role of scientists in assessing the risks of dual-use research in the life sciences. In J. L. Finney & I. Slaus (Eds.) Assessing the threat of weapons of destruction: The role of independent scientists (pp. 137–140), (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series E: Human and Societal Dynamics – Vol. 61), Amsterdam: IOP Press.Google Scholar
- Society for Neuroscience. (2012), Guidelines for authors of scientific communications, http://www.sfn.org/index.aspx?pagename=responsibleConduct_authorsOfResearchManuscripts. Accessed 13 Nov 2012.
- Streatfeild, D. (2006). Brainwash: The secret history of mind control. London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
- Walther, G. (2012). Ethics in neuroscience curricula: A survey of Australia, Canada, Germany, the UK, and the US. Neuroethics. [forthcoming]. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12152-012-9168-2. Accessed 13 Nov 2012.
- World Health Organization. (2007). Scientific working group on life science research and global health security: Report of the first meeting, 16–18 Oct 2006, Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/entity/csr/resources/publications/deliberate/WHO_CDS_EPR_2007_4n.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.