Kakagon (Bad River Sloughs), Wisconsin (USA)

  • Jim Meeker
  • Naomi Tillison
Reference work entry


The Kakagon/Bad River Sloughs, Honest John Lake wetland complex, is a 6,475 ha mosaic of coastal wetland and open water habitats of Lake Superior and is the homeland of the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians. The complex is a dynamic system influenced by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities, including those occurring within the Bad River Watershed and Lake Superior. The Kakagon Sloughs support a myriad of wetland types, and both the estuarial characteristics of the Sloughs and influence of fluctuating water levels on Lake Superior contribute to the wetland’s productivity. Hydrology is a strong driver of the health of this ecosystem, and wild rice Zizania palustris serves as a key species indicating the health of the Kakagon Sloughs complex. The Bad River Band adaptively manages the Kakagon Sloughs complex by implementing an integrated, multifaceted approach, including controlling invasive species, improving habitat, and collaborating in watershed management efforts.


Wild rice Cattails Nutrients Sediments Water levels Coastal wetlands 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Formerly of: Northland CollegeAshlandUSA
  2. 2.Natural Resources DirectorBad River Band of Lake Superior ChippewaOdanahUSA

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