The Wetland Book pp 1647-1657 | Cite as

Lake Parishan (Islamic Republic of Iran)

  • Ahmad Lotfi
Reference work entry


Lake Parishan in Kazeroun Area is a protected wetland, a Ramsar site, and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. It is one of the Important Bird Areas of Iran hosting a large number of migratory birds including rare and threatened species. It is a water body mainly recharged by ground water resources, i.e., seepage from karstic formations and spring flows. Evaporation is the sole discharging component of the lake. During the last decade, however, because of prolonged drought and increasing ground water exploitation for irrigated farmlands, the wetland is in crisis for unbalanced inflows vs evaporation. A joint Department of Environment and UNDP project conducted during 2004-2012 resulted in the development of an ecosystem based Management Plan which emphasized, among other conservation rules, improving on-farm water uses as well as alternative livelihood sources for local people to reduce pressure on wetland resources.


Biosphere Reserve Bird Area Climate change Desiccation Drought Karstic aquifer Parishan Lake Ramsar site 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Conservation of Iranian Wetland Project, Department of EnvironmentTehranIran
  2. 2.Senior Irrigation Engineers, Member of Board of Directors, Pandam Consulting EngineersTehranIran

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