The Wetland Book pp 1819-1829 | Cite as

Sembilang National Park: Mangrove Reserves of Indonesia

  • Marcel J. Silvius
  • Yus Rusila Noor
  • I. Reza Lubis
  • Wim Giesen
  • Dipa Rais
Reference work entry


Sembilang National Park with Berbak National Park (a Ramsar Site) to the north is part of the Greater Berbak-Sembilang Ecosystem on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and comprises the largest mangrove area (77,500 ha) of the Indo-Malayan region and the only mangrove area that still has an intact natural transition into adjacent freshwater and peatswamp forest. It is an important breeding and nursery area for fish and shrimp and one of the most important areas for resident and migratory waterbirds in Southeast Asia. The peatland area in Sembilang NP is approximately 31% of total park area and constitutes a huge carbon store estimated at around 164 million tons. Officially designated in 2011 as one of Indonesia’s Ramsar Sites, the most serious threat to the area is rapid degradation of the peat swamp forest outside of the park boundaries, involving illegal logging as well as the conversion of large areas to cultivation of oil palm or Acacia (for pulp wood for paper production). The peat domes that support the peat swamp forests in the national park are only partly covered by the protected area, and drainage (including legal drainage) outside of the park may strongly impact the eco-hydrology of the protected area. About 3,000 ha of mangrove in the eastern part of the park converted for aquaculture since 1995 has been subsequently included in the park’s restoration zone, and in 2013 a mangrove restoration project was initiated. The park is still threatened by external developments including a harbor project and plantations.


Mangrove Peatswamp forest Mudflats Waterbirds Sumatra 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.WageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Wetlands International IndonesiaBogorIndonesia
  3. 3.Euroconsult Mott MacDonaldArnhemThe Netherlands

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