Coastal Wetlands of Manitoba’s Great Lakes (Canada)

Reference work entry

Abstract

The province of Manitoba, Canada, contains three of the world’s largest freshwater lakes; Lakes Winnipeg, Winnipegosis and Manitoba. A significant feature of these lakes are their extensive coastal wetlands. A GIS-inventory found the Manitoba Great Lakes have six times more wetlands per km of shoreline than the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake Winnipeg has a coastal wetland area of 1,404 km2, Lake Manitoba has 564 km2, and Lake Winnipegosis has 742 km2. Netley-Libau Marsh (222 km2) on Lake Winnipeg, and Delta Marsh (185 km2) on Lake Manitoba, are believed to be the largest freshwater coastal wetlands in North America. These wetlands provide many benefits to their adjoining lakes, and provide important wildlife and fisheries habitat. However, lake-level regulation, nonpoint source nutrient pollution and invasive species are significant threats to these coastal wetlands and the ecosystem benefits they provide.

Keywords

Coastal wetlands Delta Marsh Lake Manitoba Lake Winnipeg Lake Winnipegosis Netley-Libau Marsh 

References

  1. Albert DA, Wilcox DA, Ingram JW, Thompson TA. Hydrogeomorphic classification for Great Lakes coastal wetlands. J Great Lakes Res. 2005;31 Suppl 1:129–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badiou PHJ, Goldsborough LG. Ecological impacts of an exotic benthivorous fish in large experimental wetlands, Delta Marsh, Canada. Wetl. 2010;30:657–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batt BDJ. The Delta Marsh. In: Murkin HR, van der Valk AG, Clark WR, editors. Prairie wetland ecology: the contribution of the Marsh Ecology Research Program. Ames: Iowa State University Press; 2000. p. 17–33.Google Scholar
  4. Bernal B, Mitsch WJ. Comparing carbon sequestration in temperate freshwater wetland communities. Glob Chang Biol. 2012;18(5):1636–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Branch MW. Netley-Libau Marshes: resource development and management proposal, summary report. Winnipeg (MB): Manitoba Department of Natural Resources; 1986. p. 1986.Google Scholar
  6. Delta Marsh Technical Committee. The Delta Marsh: it’s values, problems and potentialities. Winnipeg (MB): Manitoba Department of Mines and Natural Resources; 1968.Google Scholar
  7. Downing JA, Duarte CM. Abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds and impoundments. In: Likens GE, editor. Encyclopedia of inland waters. Oxford: Elsevier; 2009. p. 469–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Environment Canada and Manitoba Water Stewardship. State of Lake Winnipeg: 1999 to 2007. Winnipeg (MB): Manitoba Water Stewardship; 2011.Google Scholar
  9. Gillespiel DI, Boyd H. Wetlands for the world: Canada’s Ramsar sites. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service; 1991.Google Scholar
  10. Goldsborough LG, Wrubleski DA. The decline of Delta Marsh, an internationally significant wetland in South-Central Manitoba. Sixth Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Conference, Winnipeg. 2001. CD-ROM.Google Scholar
  11. Grosshans RE, Wrubleski DA, Goldsborough LG. Changes in the emergent plant community of Netley-Libau Marsh between 1979 and 2001. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba; 2004. p. 52. Delta Marsh Field Station Occasional Publication No. 4.Google Scholar
  12. Hertam SC. The effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) on water quality, algae and submerged vegetation in Delta Marsh, Manitoba. [master’s thesis]. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba; 2010.Google Scholar
  13. Hnatiuk SD. Experimental manipulation of ponds to determine the impact of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Delta Marsh, Manitoba: effects on water quality, algae, and submersed vegetation. [master’s thesis]. Winnipeg (MB): University of Manitoba; 2006.Google Scholar
  14. Janusz RA, O’Connor JF. The Netley-Libau Marsh Fish Resource. Winnipeg (MB): Manitoba Natural Resources; 1985. p. 176. Fisheries Manuscript Report 85–19.Google Scholar
  15. Keough JR, Thompson TA, Guntenspergen GR, Wilcox DA. Hydrogeomorphic factors and ecosystem responses in coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes. Wetl. 1999;19:821–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Last WM. Sedimentology and post-glacial history of Lake Manitoba. [dissertation]. Winnipeg (MB): University of Manitoba; 1980.Google Scholar
  17. Leverington DW, Mann JD, Teller JT. Changes in the bathymetry and volume of glacial Lake Agassiz between 11,000 and 9300 14C yr B.P. Quatern Res. 2000;54:174–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Manitoba NAWMP Technical Committee. Manitoba implementation plan of the North American waterfowl management plan. Winnipeg: Manitoba NAWMP Technical Committee; 1988.Google Scholar
  19. Mann JD, Leverington DW, Rayburn J, Teller JT. The volume and paleobathymetry of glacial Lake Agassiz. J Paleolimnol. 1999;22:71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maynard L, Wilcox D. Background Report on Great Lakes Wetlands. Prepared for the state of the Great Lakes 1997 report. Chicago (IL): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Great Lakes National Program Office; 1996. Joint publication of Environment Canada, Toronto (ON).Google Scholar
  21. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG. Wetlands. 3rd ed. Toronto : John Wiley and Sons; 2000.Google Scholar
  22. Morrice JA, Danz NP, Regal RR, Kelly JR, Niemi GJ, Reavie ED, Hollenhorst T, Axler RP, Trebitz AS, Cotter AM, Peterson GS. Human influences on water quality in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Environ Manag. 2008;41:347–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nielsen E, Conley G. Sedimentology and geomorphic evolution of the south shore of lake winnipeg. Winnipeg (MB): Manitoba Energy and Mines, Geological Services; 1994. Geological Report GR94-1.Google Scholar
  24. Page ECM. A water quality assessment of Lake Manitoba, a large shallow lake in central Canada. [master’s thesis]. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba; 2011.Google Scholar
  25. Parks CR. Experimental manipulation of connectivity and Common Carp; the effects on native fish, water-column invertebrates, and amphibians in Delta Marsh, Manitoba. [master’s thesis]. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba; 2006.Google Scholar
  26. Shay JM, de Geus PMJ, Kapinga MRM. Changes in shoreline vegetation over a 50-year period in the Delta Marsh, Manitoba in response to water levels. Wetl. 1999;19:413–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Simon TP, Stewart PM, editors. Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes: health, habitat, and indicators. Bloomington: Indiana Biological Survey; 2006.Google Scholar
  28. Stewart KW, Suthers IM, Leavesley K. New fish distribution records in Manitoba and the role of a man-made interconnection between two drainages as an avenue of dispersal. Can Field Nat. 1985;99:317–26.Google Scholar
  29. Teller JT, Clayton L, editors. Glacial Lake Agassiz. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 26. 1983. p. 451.Google Scholar
  30. Underwood TJ, den Haan HE. Checklist of the birds of Delta Marsh. 3rd ed. Portage la Prairie: Delta Marsh Bird Observatory; 2000.Google Scholar
  31. Watchorn KE, Goldsborough LG, Wrubleski DA, Mooney BG. A hydrogeomorphic inventory of coastal wetlands of the Manitoba Great Lakes: Lakes Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Winnipegosis. J Great Lakes Res. 2012;38:115–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Wetland and Waterfowl ResearchDucks Unlimited CanadaStonewallCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations