Advertisement

Copper River Delta, Alaska (USA)

  • Frederic A. Reid
  • Daniel Fehringer
  • Richard G. Kempka
Reference work entry

Abstract

The Copper River Delta of south-central Alaska is the largest wetland on the Pacific Coast of North America, stretching more than 75 km along the coast and up to 50 km inland. This coastal wetland complex is bordered by coastal mountains to the north (up to 2,300 m), Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to the south, and the largest glacial system of North America (Bering complex) to the east. This 252,000 ha wetland complex has minimal human disturbance, except for minor timber harvest. A 1964 earthquake of 9.2 Richter resulted in a 2–4 m uplift that modified hydrology and plant succession. This coastal delta serves as one of the most important migrational habitats for waterfowl and shorebirds on the continent.

Keywords

Wetlands Prince William Sound Copper river delta Tectonics Plant succession Hydrology Western sandpiper Dunlin Trumpeter swan 

References

  1. Bellante G, Goetz W, Maus P, Develice R, Riley M, Megown K. Copper River Delta existing vegetation map project. Salt Lake City: USDA Forest Service, Remote Sensing Applications Center; 2013. p. 23. RSAC-10075-RPT1.Google Scholar
  2. Boggs K. Classification of community types, successional sequences, and landscapes of the Copper River Delta, Alaska. Portland: U.S. Deptartment of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; 2000. p. 244. General technical report PNW-GTR-469.Google Scholar
  3. Boggs K, Shephard M. Response of marine deltaic surfaces to major earthquake uplifts in Southcentral Alaska. Wetland. 1999;19:13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brabets TP. Geomorphology of the lower Copper River, Alaska. Denver: U.S. Geological Survey; 1997. 89 p. Professional Paper 1581.Google Scholar
  5. Butler W. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee on 1986–1992 breeding ground surveys of the dusky Canada goose on the Copper River Delta. Portland: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv.; 1992. 7 p. Unpubl. Rept.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell BH. Factors affecting the nesting success of dusky Canada geese, Branta canadensis occidentalis, on the Copper River Delta, Alaska. Can Field Nat. 1990;104:567–74.Google Scholar
  7. Cowardin LM, Carter V, Golet FC, Laroe ET. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Interior, FWS, Biological Services Program; 1979. p. 103. FWS/085-79/31.Google Scholar
  8. Crow JT. Plant ecology of the Copper River Delta, Alaska [PhD dissertation]. Pullman: Washington State University; 1968. p. 120.Google Scholar
  9. DeVelice RL, Delapp J, Wei X. Vegetation succession model for the Copper River Delta. Anchorage: USDA Forest Service, Chugach National Forest; 2001. p. 56.Google Scholar
  10. Kempka RG, Maurizi BS, Reid FA, Logan DW, Youkey DE. Utilizing SPOT multispectral imagery to assess wetland vegetation succession in the Copper River Delta, AK. Remote Sens Mar Coastal Environ. 1994;2:529–41.Google Scholar
  11. King JG. Ducks, Rampart dam and wildlife refuges in interior Alaska. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Historical Society; 2002. p. 1–22.Google Scholar
  12. King JG, Lensink CJ. An evaluation of Alaska habitat for migratory birds. Washington, DC: US Dept of Interior, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife; 1971. p. 45.Google Scholar
  13. MacCracken JG. Ecology of moose on the Copper River Delta, Alaska [PhD dissertation]. Moscow: University of Idaho; 1992. p. 338.Google Scholar
  14. MacCracken JG, Van Ballenberghe V, Peek JW. Habitat relationships of moose on the Copper River Delta in coastal south-central Alaska. Wildlife Monogr. 1997;136:3–52.Google Scholar
  15. Pflaker G. Regional vertical tectonic displacement of shorelines in south-central Alaska during and between great earthquakes. Northwest Sci. 1990;64:250–8.Google Scholar
  16. Potyondy J, Meyer M, Mace A. Ana analysis of 1964 earthquake effects upon the vegetation and hydrology of the Copper River Delta, Alaska. St. Paul: Remote Sensing Laboratory, College of Forestry, University of Minnesota; 1975. 84 p. IAFHE RSL Res. Pap. 75–6.Google Scholar
  17. Reimitz E. Late Quaternary history and sedimentation of the Copper River Delta and vicinity, Alaska [PhD dissertation]. San Diego: University of California; 1966. p. 160.Google Scholar
  18. Thilenius JT. Woody plant succession on earthquake uplifted coastal wetlands of the Copper River delta, Alaska. For Ecol Manag. 1990;33(34):439–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Thilenius JT. Phytosociology and succession on earthquake-uplifted coastal wetlands, Copper River, Alaska. Portland: U.S. Dep. Ag., Forest Service, Pacific Norwest Research Station; 1995. p. 58. Gen. technical rep. PNW-GTR-346.Google Scholar
  20. Timm DE, Bromley RG, McNight DE, Rodgers RS. Management evolution of Dusky Canada Geese. In: Jarvis RL, Bartonek JC, editors. Management and biology of Pacific flyway geese. Corvallis: OSU Book Stores; 1979. p. 322–30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic A. Reid
    • 1
  • Daniel Fehringer
    • 1
  • Richard G. Kempka
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Ducks Unlimited, Inc.Rancho CordovaUSA
  2. 2.The Climate TrustPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations