Ophthalmology in Egypt

  • Norman B. Medow
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-3934-5_9990-1

We learn about our past from studying its recorded history. Although Egypt is said to have been inhabited since 40,000 years ago, its recorded history, including medical history, is for the most part known from the ten papyri that have survived and by the hieroglyphs or sacred letters that have survived in the tombs of those who have passed away. Of the papyri that have survived, the Ebers Papyrus is the most important for ophthalmology. Edwin Smith discovered it in Thebes in 1862. It is said to have been written in approximately 1500 BCE. It is presently found at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Edwin Smith also found another papyrus that carries his name and is housed at the New York Academy of Medicine in New York City. The papyri were written using hieroglyphics, the translation and the understanding of which have been the subject of academic discussions for hundreds of years. Four hundred plants, minerals, and animal parts were used to create remedies for the various...


Zinc Oxide Sodium Hydroxide Recorded History Copper Oxide York Academy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Director of Pediatric Ophthalmology and StrabismusMontefiore Hospital Medical CenterBronxNY