Nyāya

  • Purushottama P. Bilimoria
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-3934-5_9280-2

Nyāya is one of the major schools of orthodox Indian philosophy (ca. 450 to 1100 CE). It represents reasoning or logic, nyāya, into the ideals of adhyātma (treating of things elusive, such as being and the self) and hetu (reason, treating of things conventional and empirical) (Halbfass, 1992, p. 32). While the former inquiry is reminiscent of the medieval reconfiguration of Aristotelian metaphysics from Aquinas to Duns Scotus, Nyāya metaphysic does not easily fit this frame. Rather, the goal of inquiry is niḥśreyasa or the greatest good of wisdom and liberation from ignorance and suffering or duḥkha. Thus, this prāçiṇa or “ancient” school of Brāhmaṇic thought is enlisted in the service of the erstwhile Vedic orthodoxy (śruti) to bolster defense against the “negative ontology” of a threatening Buddhist anti-realism. However, the Nyāya is better known for continuing a certain development of the realist thrust of a prior system known as Vaiśeṣika that is described as “physics” or...

Keywords

Natural Kind Indian Philosopher Perceptual Awareness Buddha Nature Substance Ontology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bhattacharya, S. (1996). Nyāya: Realist or Idealist? Journal of the Council for Indian Philosophy Research (JICPR), XIV(1), 164.Google Scholar
  2. Bijalwan, C. D. (1977). Indian Theory of Knowledge (based upon) Jayanta’s Nyāyamañjari. Delhi: Heritage Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Bilimoria, P. (1997). Śaṅkara’s attempted reconciliation of ‘You’ and ‘I’: Asmatyuṣmatsāmānvāya. In P. Bilimoria & J. N. Mohanty (Eds.), Relativism, Suffering and Beyond Essays in Memory of Bimal K Matilal. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Paperback, 2000, pp. 252–577.Google Scholar
  4. Bilimoria, P. (1999). Review of Daya Krishna 1996. Sophia International, 38(1), 142–146.Google Scholar
  5. Bilimoria P. (1998) Nyāya: Matilal. Weblink, to Paediea, World Congress of Philosophy. www.bu.edu/WCP/Papers/Asia/AsiaBili.htm.
  6. Bilimoria, P., & Mohanty, J. N. (Eds.). (1997). Relativism, Suffering and Beyond: Essays in Memory of Bimal K Matilal. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Paperback, 2003.Google Scholar
  7. Chakrabarti, A. (1983). Is liberation (mokṣa) pleasant? Philosophy East and West, 33(2), 167–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chakrabarti, A. (1995). Metaphysics in India. In K. Jaegwon & S. Ernest (Eds.), A Companion to Metaphysics (Blackwell Companion to Philosophy). Oxford, MA: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Daya, K. (1996a). The Problematic and Conceptual Structure of Classical Indian Thought about man, Society and Polity. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Daya, K. (1996b). Udayana a ‘prachanna advaitin’. Journal of Indian Council for Philosophical Research, XIII(3), 151.Google Scholar
  11. Daya, K. (1997). Happiness: A Nyāya-Vaśeṣika Perspective. In P. Bilimoria & J. N. Mohanty (Eds.), Relativism, Suffering and Beyond: Essays in Memory of Bimal K Matilal (pp. 150–163). Delhi: Oxford University Press. Paperback, 2003.Google Scholar
  12. Daya, K. (2000). Indian Philosophy – A Counter Perspective. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Halbfass, W. (1992). On Being and What There is Classical Vaiśeṣika and the History of Indian Ontology. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  14. Lipner, J. (1997). Śaṅkara on Satyam, Jñānam Anantam Brahm. In P. Bilimoria & J. N. Mohanty (Eds.), Relativism, Suffering and Beyond Essays in Memory of Bimal K Matilal (pp. 301–335). Delhi: Oxford University Press. Paperback, 2003.Google Scholar
  15. Matilal, B. K. (1985). Epistemology, Logic and Grammar in Indian Philosophical Analysis. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  16. Matilal Bimal, K. (1986/1991). Perception: An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  17. Matilal Bimal, K. (2000). Nyāya Realism. In J. Ganeri (Ed.), Collected Works of Bimal K Matilal (Vol. I). Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Matilal B. K. (1977). Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika (A Historical Survey). A History of Indian Literature (Vol. VI). Wiesbaden: Horrowidzt.Google Scholar
  19. Matilal B. K. (2000) Philosophy, Culture and Religion: Collected Papers of B K Matilal. (J. Ganeri, Ed., Vol. I). Ethics and Epics (Vol. II). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Mohanty, J. N. (1966). Gaṅgeśa’s Theory of Truth. Shantiniketan: Centre for Advanced Study in Philosophy.Google Scholar
  21. Mohanty, J. N. (2001a). Explorations in Philosophy Indian Philosophy. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Mohanty J. N. (2001). Review of ‘Pradyot Kumar Mukhopadhaya’s Indian Realism’. Explorations 209–223.Google Scholar
  23. Mukhopadhaya, P. K. (1984). Indian Realism: A Rigorous Descriptive Metaphysic. Calcutta: W P Bagchi.Google Scholar
  24. Phillips, S. (2012). Epistemology in Classical India: The Knowledge Sources of the Nyāya School. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Potter K. H. & Bhattacharya S. (1992–1995). Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies. Vol. II. Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika, Gautama to Jayanta Bhatta. Vol. VI. Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika from Gaṅgeśa to Raghunāth Śiromani. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press/Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  26. Sharma, R. K. (1997). Praśastapāda Padārthadharmasaṅgraha. ‘Nyāya Realism: Some reflections’. Journal of Indian Council for Philosophical Research, XIV(2), 138–155.Google Scholar
  27. Tarkatirthas. (Ed.). (1984/1936–1944). Nyāyadarśanam. The Nyāya-sūtras of Gautama (G. Jha, Trans., Vol. I). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA